Trogons are forest birds with a wide distribution, being found in Africa, Asia, and America, and are included in the order Trogoniformes, family Trogonidae. Phylogenetic studies using molecular data have not been able to determine the phylogenetic relationship among the different genera of trogons. So far, no cytogenetic data for these birds exist. Hence, the aim of this study was to characterize the karyotype of Trogon surrucura surrucura by means of classical and molecular cytogenetics. We found a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 82, similar to most birds, with several derived features compared to chicken and the putative ancestral avian karyotype. T. s. surrucura showed 3 pairs of microchromosomes bearing 18S rDNA clusters. The Z and W sex chromosomes were of similar size but could readily be identified by morphological differences. Using chromosome painting with whole chromosome probes from Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis, we found that the chromosomes homologous to chicken chromosomes 2 and 5 correspond to 2 different pairs in T. s. surrucura and L. albicollis, due to the occurrence of centric fissions. Paracentric inversions were detected in the segment homologous to chicken chromosome 1q, and we confirmed the recurrence of breakpoints when our results were compared to other species of birds already analyzed by FISH or by in silico genome assembly.

Christidis L: Animal Cytogenetics 4. Chordata 3 B. Aves (Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin 1990).
Cioffi MB, Martins C, Centofante L, Jacobina U, Bertollo LAC: Chromosomal variability among allopatric populations of Erythrinidae fish Hoplias malabaricus: mapping of three classes of repetitive DNAs. Cytogenet Genome Res 125:132-141 (2009).
Daniels LM, Delany ME: Molecular and cytogenetic organization of the 5S ribosomal DNA array in chicken (Gallus gallus). Chromosome Res 11:305-317 (2003).
de Oliveira EHC, Tagliarini MM, Rissino JD, Pieczarka JC, Nagamachi CY, et al: Reciprocal chromosome painting between white hawk (Leucopternis albicollis) and chicken reveals extensive fusions and fissions during karyotype evolution of Accipitridae (Aves, Falconiformes). Chromosome Res 18:349-355 (2010).
de Oliveira Furo I, Kretschmer R, O'Brien PC, Ferguson-Smith MA, de Oliveira EHC: Chromosomal diversity and karyotype evolution in south American macaws (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae). PLoS One 10:e0130157 (2015).
de Oliveira Furo I, Kretschmer R, dos Santos MS, Carvalho CAL, Gunski RJ, et al: Chromosomal mapping of repetitive DNAs in Myiopsitta monachus and Amazona aestiva (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae), with emphasis on the sex chromosomes. Cytogenet Genome Res, Epub ahead of print (2017).
dos Santos MDS, Kretschmer R, Silva FAO, Ledesma MA, O'Brien PCM, et al: Intrachromosomal rearrangements in two representatives of the genus Saltator (Thraupidae, Passeriformes) and the occurrence of heteromorphic Z chromosomes. Genetica 143:535-543 (2015).
Garnero ADV, Gunski RJ: Comparative analysis of the karyotypes of Nothura maculosa and Rynchotus rufescens (Aves: Tinamidae). A case of chromosomal polymorphism. The Nucleus 43:64-70 (2000).
Griffin DK, Haberman F, Masabanda J, O'Brien P, Bagga M, et al: Micro- and macrochromosome paints generated by flow cytometry and microdissection: tools for mapping the chicken genome. Cytogenet Cell Genet 87:278-281 (1999).
Griffin DK, Robertson LBW, Tempest HG, Skinner BM: The evolution of the avian genome as revealed by comparative molecular cytogenetics. Cytogenet Genome Res 117:64-77 (2007).
Hosner PA, Sheldon FH, Lim HC, Moyle RG: Phylogeny and biogeography of the Asian trogons (Aves: Trogoniformes) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol 57:1219-1225 (2010).
Howell WM, Black DA: Controlled silver staining of nucleolus organizer regions with a protective colloidal developer: a 1-step method. Experientia 36:1014-1015 (1980).
Jarvis ED, Mirarab S, Aberer AJ, Li B, Houde P, et al: Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds. Science 346:1320-1331 (2014).
Kretschmer R, Gunski RJ, Garnero ADV, Furo IDO, O'Brien PCM, et al: Molecular cytogenetic characterization of multiple intrachromosomal rearrangements in two representatives of the genus Turdus (Turdidae, Passeriformes). PLoS One 9:e103338 (2014).
Kretschmer R, de Oliveira EHC, dos Santos MS, Furo IDO, O'Brien PCM, et al: Chromosome mapping of the large elaenia (Elaenia spectabilis): evidence for a cytogenetic signature for passeriform birds? Biol J Linn Soc Lond 115:391-398 (2015).
Nanda I, Karl E, Griffin DK, Schartl M, Schmid M: Chromosome repatterning in three representative parrots (Psittaciformes) inferred from comparative chromosome painting. Cytogenet Genome Res 117:43-53 (2007).
Nieto LM, Kretschmer R, Ledesma MA, Garnero ADV, Gunski RJ: Karyotype morphology suggests that the Nyctibius griseus (Gmelin, 1789) carries an ancestral ZW-chromosome pair to the order Caprimulgiformes (Aves). Comp Cytogenet 6:379-387 (2012).
Nishida C, Ishijima J, Kosaka A, Tanabe H, Habermann FA, et al: Characterization of chromosome structures of Falconinae (Falconidae, Falconiformes, Aves) by chromosome painting and delineation of chromosome rearrangements during their differentiation. Chromosome Res 16:171-181 (2008).
Nishida C, Ishijima J, Ishishita S, Yamada K, Griffin DK, et al: Karyotype reorganization with conserved genomic compartmentalization in dot-shaped microchromosomes in the Japanese mountain hawk-eagle (Nisaetus nipalensis orientalis, Accipitridae). Cytogenet Genome Res 141:284-294 (2013).
Nishida-Umehara C, Tsuda Y, Ishijima J, Ando J, Fujiwara A, et al: The molecular basis of chromosome orthologies and sex chromosomal differentiation in palaeognathous birds. Chromosome Res 15:721-734 (2007).
Pinto OMO: Da classificação e nomenclatura dos surucuás brasileiros (Trogonidae). Papéis Avulsos Zool (S. Paulo) 9:89-136 (1950).
Prum RO, Berv JS, Dornburg A, Field DJ, Townsend JP, et al: A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. Nature 526:569-573 (2015).
Rodrigues BS, De Assis MF, O'Brien PCM, Ferguson-Smith MA, De Oliveira EHC: Chromosomal studies on Coscoroba coscoroba (Aves: Anseriformes) reinforce the Coscoroba-Cereopsis clade. Biol J Linn Soc Lond 111:274-279 (2014).
Schartl M, Schmid M, Nanda I: Dynamics of vertebrate sex chromosome evolution: from equal size to giants and dwarfs. Chromosoma 125:553-571 (2016).
Seabury CM, Dowd SE, Seabury PM, Raudsepp T, Brightsmith DJ, et al: A multi-platform draft de novo genome assembly and comparative analysis for the scarlet macaw (Ara macao). PLoS One 8:e62415 (2013).
Seibold-Torres C, Owens E, Chowdhary R, Ferguson-Smith MA, Tizard I, Raudsepp T: Comparative cytogenetics of the Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). Cytogenet Genome Res 147:144-153 (2015).
Skinner BM, Griffin DK: Intrachromosomal rearrangements in avian genome evolution: evidence for regions prone to breakpoints. Heredity 108:37-41 (2012).
Sumner AT: A simple technique for demonstrating centromeric heterochromatin. Exp Cell Res 75:304-306 (1972).
Tagliarini MM, Pieczarka JC, Nagamachi CY, Rissino J, De Oliveira EHC: Chromosomal analysis in Cathartidae: distribution of heterochromatic blocks and rDNA, and phylogenetic considerations. Genetica 135:299-304 (2009).
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.