In an attempt to extend the knowledge of the 5S rDNA organization in anurans, the 5S rDNA sequences of Amolops mantzorum were isolated, characterized, and mapped by FISH. Two forms of 5S rDNA, type I (209 bp) and type II (about 870 bp), were found in specimens investigated from various populations. Both of them contained a 118-bp coding sequence, readily differentiated by their non-transcribed spacer (NTS) sizes and compositions. Four probes (the 5S rDNA coding sequences, the type I NTS, the type II NTS, and the entire type II 5S rDNA sequences) were respectively labeled with TAMRA or digoxigenin to hybridize with mitotic chromosomes for samples of all localities. It turned out that all probes showed the same signals that appeared in every centromeric region and in the telomeric regions of chromosome 5, without differences within or between populations. Obviously, both type I and type II of the 5S rDNA arrays arranged in tandem, which was contrasting with other frogs or fishes recorded to date. More interestingly, all the probes detected centromeric regions in all karyotypes, suggesting the presence of a satellite DNA family derived from 5S rDNA.

Bi K, Bogart JP, Fu J: A populational survey of 45S rDNA polymorphism in the Jefferson salamander Ambystoma jeffersonianum revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Curr Zool 55:145-149 (2009).
Bogenhagen DF, Brown DD: Nucleotide sequences in Xenopus 5S DNA required for transcription termination. Cell 24:261-270 (1981).
Charlesworth B, Sniegowski P, Stephan W: The evolutionary dynamics of repetitive DNA in eukaryotes. Nature 371:215-220 (1994).
Daniels LM, Delany ME: Molecular and cytogenetic organization of the 5S ribosomal DNA array in chicken (Gallus gallus). Chromosome Res 11:305-317 (2003).
da Silva M, Matoso D, Vicari M, De Almeida M, Margarido V, Artoni R: Physical mapping of 5S rDNA in two species of knifefishes: Gymnotus pantanal and Gymnotus paraguensis (Gymnotiformes). Cytogenet Genome Res 134:303-307 (2011).
Eirin-López JM, Rebordinos L, Rooney AP, Rozas J: The birth-and-death evolution of multigene families revisited. Genome Dyn 7:170-196 (2012).
Frederiksen S, Cao H, Lomholt B, Levan G, Hallenberg C: The rat 5S rRNA bona fide gene repeat maps to chromosome 19q12→qter and the pseudogene repeat maps to 12q12. Cytogenet Cell Genet 76:101-106 (1997).
Hall TA: BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucl Acids Symp Ser 41:95-98 (1999).
Hallenberg C, Nederby-Nielsen J, Frederiksen S: Characterization of 5S rRNA genes from mouse. Gene 142:291-295 (1994).
Harper ME, Price J, Korn LJ: Chromosonal mapping of Xenopus 5S genes: somatic-type versus oocyte-type. Nucleic Acids Res 11:2313-2323 (1983).
Jensen LR, Frederiksen S: The 5S rRNA genes in Macaca fascicularis are organized in two large tandem repeats. Biochim Biophys Acta 1492:537-542 (2000).
Komiya H, Hasegawa M, Takemura S: Differentiation of oocyte- and somatic-type 5S rRNAs in animals. J Biochem 100:369-374 (1986).
Korn LJ, Brown DD: Nucleotide sequence of Xenopus borealis oocyte 5S DNA: comparison of sequences that flank several related eukaryotic genes. Cell 15:1145-1156 (1978).
Kramer A: 5S ribosomal gene transcription during Xenopus oogenesis, in Browder LW (ed): Developmental Biology. A Comprehensive Synthesis, vol 1, pp 431-451 (Plenum Press, New York 1985).
Lazar E, Haendler B, Jacob M: Two 5S genes are expressed in chicken somatic cells. Nucleic Acids Res 11:7735-7741 (1983).
Lucchini SD, Nardi I, Barsacchi G, Batistoni R, Andronico F: Molecular cytogenetics of the ribosomal (18S+ 28S and 5S) DNA loci in primitive and advanced urodele amphibians. Genome 36:762-773 (1993).
Mäkinem A, Zijlstra C, de Haan NA, Mellink CHM, Bosma AA: Localization of 18S plus 28S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes in the dog by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet 78:231-235 (1997).
Martins C, Galetti PM Jr: Chromosomal localization of 5S rDNA genes in Leporinus fish (Anostomidae, Characiformes). Chromosome Res 7:363-367 (1999).
Martins C, Galetti PM Jr: Organization of 5S rDNA in species of the fish Leporinus: two different genomic locations are characterized by distinct nontranscribed spacers. Genome 44:903-910 (2001a).
Martins C, Galetti PM Jr: Two 5S rDNA arrays in Neotropical fish species: is it a general rule for fishes? Genetica 111:439-446 (2001b).
Martins C, Wasko AP: Organization and evolution of 5S ribosomal DNA in the fish genome, in Williams CR (ed): Focus on Genome Research, chapter X, pp 335-363 (Nova Science Publishers, New York 2004).
Martins C, Wasko AP, Oliveira C, Porto-Foresti F, Parise-Maltempi PP, et al: Dynamics of 5S rDNA in the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) genome: repeat units, inverted sequences, pseudogenes and chromosome loci. Cytogenet Genome Res 98:78-85 (2002).
Martins C, Ferreira IA, Oliveira C, Foresti F, Galetti PM Jr: A tandemly repetitive centromeric DNA sequence of the fish H. malabaricus (Characiformes: Erythrinidae) is derived from 5S rDNA. Genetica 127:133-141 (2006).
Nei M, Rooney AP: Concerted and birth-and death evolution of multigene families. Annu Rev Genet 39:121-152 (2005).
Ohta T: Evolution and Variation of Multigene Families. (Springer, Berlin 1980).
Pendás A, Moran P, Freije J, Garcia-Vazquez E: Chromosomal mapping and nucleotide sequence of two tandem repeats of Atlantic salmon 5S rDNA. Cytogenet Cell Genet 67:31-36 (1994).
Peterson RC, Doering JL, Brown DD: Characterization of two Xenopus somatic 5S DNAs and one minor oocyte-specific 5S DNA. Cell 20:131-141 (1980).
Rebordinos L, Cross I, Merlo A: High evolutionary dynamism in 5S rDNA of fish: state of the art. Cytogenet Genome Res 141:103-113 (2013).
Rodrigues DS, Rivera M, Lourenço LB: Molecular organization and chromosomal localization of 5S rDNA in Amazonian Engystomops (Anura, Leiuperidae). BMC Genet 13:17 (2012).
Sambrook J, Russell DW: Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, ed 3. (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York 2001).
Schmid M, Vitelli L, Batistoni R: Chromosome banding in Amphibia. IV. Constitutive heterochromatin, nucleolus organizers, 18S+28S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes in Ascaphidae, Pipidae, Discoglossidae and Pelobatidae. Chromosoma 95:271-284 (1987).
Schmid M, Steinlein C, Bogart JP, Feichtinger W, León P, et al: The chromosomes of terraranan frogs. Insights into vertebrate cytogenetics. Cytogenet Genome Res 130/131:1-568 (2010).
Suzuki H, Sakurai S, Matsuda Y: Rat 5S rDNA spacer sequences and chromosomal assignment of the genes to the extreme terminal region of chromosome 19. Cytogenet Cell Genet 72:1-4 (1996).
Úbeda-Manzanaro M, Merlo MA, Palazón JL, Cross I, Sarasquete C, Rebordinos L: Chromosomal mapping of the major and minor ribosomal genes, (GATA)n and U2 snRNA gene by double-colour FISH in species of the Batrachoididae family. Genetica 138:787-794 (2010).
Viñas A, Abuín M, Pardo BG, Martínez P, Sánchez L: Characterization of a new Hpa I centromeric satellite DNA in Salmo salar. Genetica 121:81-87 (2004).
Vitelli L, Batistoni R, Andronico F, Nardi I, Barsacchi-Pilone G: Chromosomal localization of 18S + 28S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes in evolutionary divergent anuran amphibians. Chromosoma 84:475-491 (1982).
Vittorazzi SE, Lourenco LB, Del-Grande ML, Recco-Pimentel SM: Satellite DNA derived from 5S rDNA in Physalaemus cuvieri (Anura, Leiuperidae). Cytogenet Genome Res 134:101-107 (2011).
Wang Y, Ding P: Polymorphic microsatellite loci in Chinese piebald odorous frog (Odorrana schmackeri). J Genet 90:e44-46 (2011).
Wasko AP, Martins C, Wright JM, Galetti PM Jr: Molecular organization of 5S rDNA in fishes of the genus Brycon. Genome 44:893-902 (2001).
Wu G, Zhao E: Two rare karyotypes of anurans, the karyotypes of Staurois mantzorum and S. liangshanensis (in Chinese). Acta Herpetologica Sinica 3:5-10 (1984).
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.