Data published in the scientific literature suggests a possible link between chromosomal rearrangements involving autosomes 1 and 3 and the presence of red morphs in the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer). In order to begin a study of this relationship, we analysed the genomic and chromosomal location of genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in M. persicae and the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), since carotenoids are the basis of the colour in many aphid species. Genomic analysis identified a DNA sequence containing carotenoid genes in synteny between the 2 species. According to the results obtained using in situ PCR, carotenoid genes were located in a subterminal portion of autosome 1 in both species. The same localization has also been observed in the onion aphid Neotoxoptera formosana Takahashi that, as M. persicae and A. pisum, belongs to the tribe Macrosiphini, thereby suggesting a synteny of this chromosomal region in aphids. In situ PCR experiments performed on 2 M. persicae asexual lineages bearing heterozygous translocations involving autosomes 1 and 3 revealed that carotenoid genes were located within chromosomal portions involved in recurrent rearrangements. We also verified by bioinformatics analyses the presence of fragile sites that could explain these recurrent rearrangements in M. persicae.

Bacolla A, Wells RD: Non-B DNA conformations, genomic rearrangements and human diseases. J Biol Chem 279:47411-47414 (2004).
Blackman RL: Chromosomal abnormalities in an anholocyclic biotype of Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Experientia 27:704-706 (1971).
Blackman RL: Chromosome numbers in the Aphididae and their taxonomic significance. Syst Entomol 5:7-25 (1980).
Blackman RL, Devonshire AL: Further studies on the genetics of the carboxylesterase regulatory system involved in resistance to organophosphorus insecticides in Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Pest Sci 9:517-521 (1978).
Blackman RL, Takada H, Kawakami K: Chromosomal rearrangement involved in insecticide resistance of Myzus persicae. Nature 271:450-452 (1978).
Blackman RL, Spence JM, Field LM, Javed N, Devine G, Devonshire AL: Inheritance of the amplified esterase genes responsible for insecticide resistance in Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Heredity 77:154-167 (1996).
Blackman RL, Spence JM, Field LM, Devonshire AL: Variation in the chromosomal distribution of amplified esterase (FE4) genes in Greek field populations of Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Heredity 82:180-186 (1999).
Britton G, Liaaen-Jensen S, Pfander H: Carotenoids Handbook (Birkhäuser-Verlag, Basel 2004).
Britton G, Liaaen-Jensen S, Pfander H: Carotenoids, Volume 4: Natural Functions (Birkhäuser-Verlag, Basel 2006).
Caillaud MC, Losey JE: Genetics of color polymorphism in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. J Insect Sci 10:95 (2010).
Devonshire AL: The role of electrophoresis in the biochemical detection of insecticide resistance, in Loxdale HD, den Hollander J (eds): Electrophoretic Studies on Agricultural Pests, pp 363-374 (Clarendon Press, Oxford 1989).
Dillon LW, Burrow AA, Wang YH: DNA instability at chromosomal fragile sites in cancer. Curr Genomics 11:326-337 (2010).
Dillon LW, Pierce LCT, Ng MCY, Wang YH: Role of DNA secondary structures in fragile site breakage along human chromosome 10. Hum Mol Genet 22:1443-1456 (2013).
Field LM, Crick SE, Devonshire AL: Polymerase chain reaction-based identification of insecticide resistance genes and DNA methylation in the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Insect Mol Biol 5:197-202 (1996).
Foster SP, Devine D, Devonshire AL: Insecticide resistance, in van Emden HF, Harrington R (eds): Aphids as Crop Pests, pp 261-285 (CABI, Oxfordshire 2007).
Harlow CD, Southern PS, Lampert EP: Geographic distribution of two colour forms, carboxylesterase activity, and chromosome configuration of the tobacco aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in North Carolina. J Econ Entomol 84:1175-1179 (1991).
Jenkins RL, Loxdale HD, Brookes CP, Dixon AFG: The major carotenoid pigments of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Physiol Entomol 24:171-178 (1999).
Kati AN, Mandrioli M, Skouras PJ, Malloch GL, Voudouris CC, et al: Recent changes in the distribution of carboxylesterase genes and associated chromosomal rearrangements in Greek populations of the tobacco aphid Myzus persicae nicotianae. Biol J Linn Soc 113:455-470 (2014).
Loxdale HD, Lushai G: Rapid changes in clonal lines: the death of a ‘sacred cow'. Biol J Linn Soc 79:3-16 (2003).
Loxdale HD, Vorwerk S, Forneck A: The unstable ‘clone': evidence from monitoring AFLP-based mutations for short-term clonal genetic variation in two asexual lineages of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.). Bull Entomol Res 103:111-118 (2013).
Macas J, Navrátilová A, Kubaláková M, Dolezel J: PRINS on plant chromosomes, in Pellestor F (ed): PRINS and in situ PCR Protocols, ed 2, pp 133-140 (Humana Press Inc., Totowa 2006).
Mandrioli M, Bizzaro D, Manicardi GC, Gionghi D, Bassoli L, Bianchi U: Cytogenetic and molecular characterization of a highly repeated DNA sequence in the peach potato aphid Myzus persicae. Chromosoma 108:436-442 (1999).
Mandrioli M, Zanasi F, Manicardi GC: Karyotype rearrangements and telomere analysis in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera, Aphididae) strains collected on Lavandula sp. plants. Comp Cytogenet 8:259-274 (2014a).
Mandrioli M, Bandinelli S, Manicardi GC: Occurrence of a Rabl-like telomere clustering in the holocentric chromosomes of the peach potato aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera; Aphididae). Cytogenet Genome Res 144:68-75 (2014b).
Manicardi GC, Bizzaro D, Azzoni P, Bianchi U: Cytological and electrophoretic analysis of DNA methylation in the holocentric chromosomes of Megoura viciae (Homoptera, Aphididae). Genome 37:625-630 (1994).
Manicardi GC, Mandrioli M, Bizzaro D, Bianchi U: Cytogenetic and molecular analysis of heterochromatic areas in the holocentric chromosomes of different aphid species, in Sobti RG, Obe G, Athwal RS (eds): Some Aspects of Chromosome Structure and Function, pp 47-56 (Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi 2002).
Manicardi GC, Mandrioli M, Blackman RL: The cytogenetic architecture of the aphid genome. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 90:112-25 (2015a).
Manicardi GC, Nardelli A, Mandrioli M: Fast chromosomal evolution and karyotype instability: recurrent chromosomal rearrangements in the peach potato aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera, Aphididae). Biol J Linn Soc 116:519-529 (2015b).
Monti V, Giusti M, Bizzaro D, Manicardi GC, Mandrioli M: Presence of a functional (TTAGG)n telomere-telomerase system in aphids. Chromosome Res 19:625-633 (2011).
Monti V, Lombardo G, Loxdale H, Manicardi GC, Mandrioli M: Continuous occurrence of intra-individual chromosome rearrangements in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Genetica 140:93-103 (2012a).
Monti V, Mandrioli M, Rivi M, Manicardi GC: The vanishing clone: occurrence of repeated chromosome fragmentations in the aphid Myzus persicae (Homoptera, Aphididae). Biol J Linn Soc105:350-358 (2012b).
Moran NA, Jarvik T: Lateral transfer of genes from fungi underlies carotenoid production in aphids. Science 328:624-627 (2010).
Nováková E, Moran NA: Diversification of genes for carotenoid biosynthesis in aphids following an ancient transfer from a fungus. Mol Biol Evol 29:313-323 (2012).
Popescu NC: Genetic alterations in cancer as a result of breakage at fragile sites. Cancer Lett 192:1-17 (2003).
Rivi M, Monti V, Mazzoni E, Cassanelli S, Panini M, et al: Karyotype variations in Italian populations of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera, Aphididae). Bull Entomol Res 102:663-671 (2012).
Rivi M, Monti V, Mazzoni E, Cassanelli S, Panini M, et al: A1-3 chromosomal translocations in Italian populations of the peach potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) not linked to esterase-based insecticide resistance. Bull Entomol Res 103:278-285 (2013).
Takada H: Genotypic composition and insecticide resistance of Japanese populations of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hom., Aphididae). J Appl Entomol 102:19-38 (1986).
Thys RG, Lehman CE, Pierce LCT, Wang YH: DNA secondary structure at chromosomal fragile sites in human disease. Curr Genomics 16:60-70 (2015).
Yang Z, Zhang X: Karyotype polymorphism in different geographic populations of green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in China. Insect Sci 7:29-35 (2000).
Zhao J, Bacolla A, Wang G, Vasquez KM: Non-B DNA structure-induced genetic instability and evolution. Cell Mol Life Sci 67:43-62 (2010).
Zlotorynski E, Rahat A, Skaug J, Ben-Porat N, Ozeri E, et al: Molecular basis for expression of common and rare fragile sites. Mol Cell Biol 23:7143-7151 (2003).
Zuker M: Mfold web server for nucleic acid folding and hybridization prediction. Nucleic Acids Res 31:3406-3415 (2003).
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.