Repetitive DNA is the largest fraction of the eukaryote genome and comprises tandem and dispersed sequences. It presents variations in relation to its composition, number of copies, distribution, dynamics, and genome organization, and participates in the evolutionary diversification of different vertebrate species. Repetitive sequences are usually located in the heterochromatin of centromeric and telomeric regions of chromosomes, contributing to chromosomal structures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to physically map repetitive DNA sequences (5S rDNA, telomeric sequences, tropomyosin gene 1, and retroelements Rex1 and SINE) of mitotic chromosomes of Amazonian species of teiids (Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus sp. 1, Kentropyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin) to understand their genome organization and karyotype evolution. The mapping of repetitive sequences revealed a distinct pattern in Cnemidophorus sp. 1, whereas the other species showed all sequences interspersed in the heterochromatic region. Physical mapping of the tropomyosin 1 gene was performed for the first time in lizards and showed that in addition to being functional, this gene has a structural function similar to the mapped repetitive elements as it is located preferentially in centromeric regions and termini of chromosomes.

Azzalin CM, Nergadze SG, Giulotto E: Human intrachromosomal telomeric-like repeats: sequence organization and mechanisms of origin. Chromosoma 110:75-82 (2001).
Barros AV, Sczepanski TS, Cabrero J, Camacho JPM, Vicari MR, Artoni RF: Fiber FISH reveals different patterns of high-resolution physical mapping for repetitive DNA in fish. Aquaculture 322-323:47-50 (2011).
Barua B: Periodicities designed in the tropomyosin sequence and structure define its functions. Bioarchitecture 3:51-56 (2013).
Biscotti MA, Canapa A, Forconi M, Olmo E, Barucca M: Transcription of tandemly repetitive DNA: functional roles. Chromosome Res 23:463-477 (2015).
Böhne A, Brunet F, Galiana-Arnoux D, Schultheis C, Volff JN: Transposable elements as drivers of genomic and biological diversity in vertebrates. Chromosome Res 16:203-215 (2008).
Bolzán AD: Chromosomal aberrations involving telomeres and interstitial telomeric sequences. Mutagenesis 27:1-15 (2012).
Burt DW: Origin and evolution of avian microchromosomes. Cytogenet Genome Res 96:97-112 (2002).
Campo D, García-Vázquez E: Evolution in the block: common elements of 5S rDNA organization and evolutionary patterns in distant fish genera. Genome 55:33-44 (2012).
Carvalho NDM, Arias FJ, Silva FA, Schneider CH, Gross MC: Cytogenetic analyses of five amazon lizard species of the subfamilies Teiinae and Tupinambinae and review of karyotyped diversity the family Teiidae. Comp Cytogenet 9:625-644 (2015).
Chaiprasertsri N, Uno Y, Peyachoknagul S, Prakhongcheep O, Baicharoen S, et al: Highly species-specific centromeric repetitive DNA sequences in lizards: molecular cytogenetic characterization of a novel family of satellite DNA sequences isolated from the water monitor lizard (Varanus salvator macromaculatus, Platynota). J Hered 104:798-806 (2013).
Charlesworth B, Sniegowski P, Stephan W: The evolutionary dynamics of repetitive DNA in eukaryotes. Nature 371:215-220 (1994).
Chase PB, Szczypinski MP, Soto EP: Nuclear tropomyosin and troponin in striated muscle: new roles in a new locale? J Muscle Res Cell Motil 34:275-284 (2013).
DeBaryshe PG, Pardue ML: Differential maintenance of DNA sequences in telomeric and centromeric heterochromatin. Genetics 187:51-60 (2011).
Eickbush TH, Eickbush DG: Finely orchestrated movements: evolution of the ribosomal RNA genes. Genetics 175:477-485 (2007).
Faria K, Marchesin SR, Moreira PR, Beguelini MR, Morielle-Versute E: New insights into telomeric DNA sequence (TTAGGG)n location in bat chromosomes. Genet Mol Res 8:1079-1084 (2009).
Farré M, Ponsà M, Bosch M: Interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs) are not located at the exact evolutionary breakpoints in primates. Cytogenet Genome Res 124:128-131 (2009).
Ford CE, Hamerton JL: The chromosomes of man. Nature 178:1020-1023 (1956).
Friesen VL, Congdon BC, Kidd MG, Birt TP: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for the amplification of five nuclear introns in vertebrates. Mol Ecol 8:2141-2152 (1999).
Galetti PM Jr, Martins C: Contribuição da hibridização in situ para o conhecimento dos cromossomos dos peixes, in Guerra M (ed): FISH: Conceitos e Aplicações na Citogenética, pp 61-88 (Editora da Sociedade Brasileira de Genética, Ribeirão Preto 2004).
Hall TA: BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/96/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41:95-98 (1999).
Harvey MB, Ugueto GN, Gutberlet RL Jr: Review of teiid morphology with a revised taxonomy and phylogeny of the Teiidae (Lepidosauria: Squamata). Zootaxa 3459:1-156 (2012).
He Q, Cai Z, Hu T, Liu H, Bao C, et al: Repetitive sequence analysis and karyotyping reveals centromere-associated DNA sequences in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). BMC Plant Biol 15:105 (2015).
Ijdo JW, Wells RA, Baldini A, Reeders ST: Improved telomere detection using a telomere repeat probe (TTAGGG)n generated by PCR. Nucleic Acids Res 19:4780 (1991).
Janco M, Suphamungmee W, Li X, Lehman W, Lehrer SS, Geeves MA: Polymorphism in tropomyosin structure and function. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 34:177-187 (2013).
Janes DE, Organ CL, Fujita MK, Shedlock AM, Edwards SV: Genome evolution in reptilia, the sister group of mammals. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 11:239-64 (2010).
Jurka J, Kapitonov VV, Pavlicek A, Klonowski P, Kohany O, Walichiewicz J: Repbase Update, a database of eukaryotic repetitive elements. Cytogen Genome Res 110:462-467 (2005).
Kohany O, Gentles AJ, Hankus L, Jurka J: Annotation, submission and screening of repetitive elements in Repbase: RepbaseSubmitter and Censor. BMC Bioinformatics 7:474 (2006).
Kojima KK: A new class of SINEs with snRNA gene-derived heads. Genome Biol Evol 6:1702-1712 (2015).
Kordis D: Transposable elements in reptilian and avian (Sauropsida) genomes. Cytogenet Genome Res 127:94-111 (2009).
Mandrioli M, Cuoghi B, Marini M, Manicardi GC: Localization of the (TTAGGG)n telomeric repeat in the chromosomes of the pufferfish Tetraodon fluviatilis (Hamilton Buchanan) (Osteichthyes). Caryologia 52:155-157 (1999).
Martins C: Chromosomes and repetitive DNAs: a contribution to the knowledge of fish genome, in Pisano E, Ozouf-Costaz C, Foresti F, Kapoor BG (eds): Fish Cytogenetics, pp 421-453 (Science Publisher, Enfield 2007).
Martins C, Wasko AP: Organization and evolution of 5S ribosomal DNA in the fish genome, in Williams CR (ed): Focus on Genome Research, pp 335-363 (Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge 2004).
Martins C, Wasko AP, Oliveira C, Wright J: Nucleotide sequence of 5S rDNA and localization of the ribosomal RNA genes to metaphase chromosomes of the Tilapiini cichlid fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Hereditas 133:39-46 (2000).
Meyne J, Baker RJ, Hobart HH, Hsu TC, Ryder OA, et al: Distribution of non-telomeric sites of the (TTAGGG)n telomeric sequence in vertebrate chromosomes. Chromosoma 99:3-10 (1990).
Nanda I, Schrama D, Feichtinger W, Haaf T, Schartl M, Schmid M: Distribution of telomeric (TTAGGG) sequences in avian chromosomes. Chromosoma 111:215-227 (2002).
Nei M, Rooney AP: Concerted and birth-and-death evolution of multigene families. Annu Rev Genet 39:121-152 (2005).
Nishihara H, Terai Y, Okada N: Characterization of novel Alu- and tRNA-related SINEs from the tree shrew and evolutionary implications of their origins. Mol Biol Evol 19:1964-1972 (2002).
Nishihara H, Smit AF, Okada N: Functional noncoding sequences derived from SINEs in the mammalian genome. Genome Res 16:864-874 (2006).
Ohshima K, Okada N: SINEs and LINEs: symbionts of eukaryotic genomes with a common tail. Cytogenet Genome Res 110:475-490 (2005).
Padeganeh A, Rop VD, Maddox PS: Nucleosomal composition at the centromere: a numbers game. Chromosome Res 21:27-36 (2013).
Padeken J, Zeller P, Gasser SM: Repeat DNA in genome organization and stability. Curr Opin Microbiol 31:12-19 (2015).
Pinkel D, Straume T, Gray JW: Cytogenetic analysis using quantitative, high sensitivity, fluorescence hybridization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:2934-2938 (1986).
Piskurek O, Austin CC, Okada N: Sauria SINE s: novel short interspersed retroposable elements that are widespread in reptile genomes. J Mol Evol 62:630-644 (2006).
Piskurek O, Nishihara H, Okada N: The evolution of two partner LINE/SINE families and a full-length chromodomain-containing Ty3/Gypsy LTR element in the first reptilian genome of Anolis carolinensis. Gene 441:111-118 (2009).
Pokorná MJ, Trifonov VA, Rens W, Ferguson-Smith MA, Kratochvíl L: Low rate of interchromosomal rearrangements during old radiation of gekkotan lizards (Squamata: Gekkota). Chromosome Res 23:299-309 (2015).
Rebordinos L, Cross I, Merlo A: High evolutionary dynamism in 5S rDNA of fish: state of the art. Cytogenet Genome Res 141:103-113 (2013).
Revaud D, Mozziconacci J, Sabatier L, Desmaze C, Lavelle C: Sequence-driven telomeric chromatin structure. Cell Cycle 8:1099-1100 (2009).
Rojo V, Giovannotti M, Naveira H, Nisi Cerioni P, González-Tizón AM, et al: Karyological characterization of the endemic Iberian rock lizard, Iberolacerta monticola (Squamata, Lacertidae): insights into sex chromosome evolution. Cytogenet Genome Res 142:28-39 (2014).
Rovatsos M, Kratochvíl L, Altmanová M, Pokorná MJ: Interstitial telomeric motifs in squamate reptiles: when the exceptions outnumber the rule. PLoS One 10:1-14 (2015).
Ruiz-Herrera A, Nergadze SG, Santagostino M, Giulotto E: Telomeric repeats far from the ends: mechanisms of origin and role in evolution. Cytogenet Genome Res 122:219-228 (2008).
Sambrook J, Russell DW: Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, pp 633-664 (Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor 2001).
Simonet T, Zaragosi LE, Philippe C, Lebrigand K, Schouteden CM, et al: The human TTAGGG repeat factors 1 and 2 bind to a subset of interstitial telomeric sequences and satellite repeats. Cell Res 21:1028-1038 (2011).
Schneider CH, Gross MC, Terencio ML, Artoni RF, Vicari MR, et al: Chromosomal evolution of neotropical cichlids: the role of repetitive DNA sequences in the organization and structure of karyotype. Rev Fish Biol Fish 23:201-214 (2012).
Schmid M, Steinlein C, Feichtinger W, Haaf T, Mijares-Urrutia A, et al: Cytogenetic studies on Gonatodes (Reptilia, Squamata, Sphaerodactylidae). Cytogenet Genome Res 144:47-61 (2014).
Srikulnath K, Uno Y, Nishida C, Ota H, Matsuda Y: Karyotype reorganization in the hokou gecko (Gekko hokouensis, Gekkonidae): the process of microchromosome disappearance in Gekkota. PLoS One 10:e0134829 (2015).
Steiner FA, Henikoff S: Diversity in the organization of centromeric chromatin. Curr Opin Genet Dev 31:28-35 (2015).
Supiwong W, Liehr T, Cioffi MB, Chaveerach A, Kosyakova N, et al: Karyotype and cytogenetic mapping of 9 classes of repetitive DNAs in the genome of the naked catfish Mystus bocourti (Siluriformes, Bagridae). Mol Cytogenet 6:51 (2013).
Terencio ML, Schneider CH, Gross MC, Nogaroto V, de Almeida MC, et al: Repetitive sequences associated with differentiation of W chromosome in Semaprochilodus taeniurus. Genetica 140:505-512 (2012).
Thompson JD, Higging DG, Gibson TJ: Clustal W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position specific gap penalties and matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22:4673-4680 (1994).
Vigil-Stenman T, Larsson J, Nylander JA, Bergman B: Local hopping mobile DNA implicated in pseudogene formation and reductive evolution in an obligate cyanobacteria-plant symbiosis. BMC Genomics 16:193 (2015).
Vrhoviski B, Thezé N, Thiébaud P: Structure and evolution of tropomyosin genes. Adv Exp Med Biol 644:6-26 (2008).
Volff JN, Korting C, Schartl M: Multiple lineages of the non-LTR retrotransposon Rex1 with varying success in invading fish genomes. Mol Biol Evol 17:1673-1684 (2000).
Wood AM, Laster K, Rice EL, Kosak ST: A beginning of the end: new insights into the functional organization of telomeres. Nucleus 6:172-178 (2015).
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.