B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans are considered to be mitotically stable, because all meiotic (primary spermatocytes and oocytes) or mitotic (embryos, ovarioles, and gastric caecum) cells analyzed within the same individual show the same B chromosome number. Nothing is known, however, about body parts with somatic tissues with no mitotic activity in adult individuals, constituting the immense majority of their body. Therefore, we investigated whether B chromosomes are present in 8 non-mitotically active somatic body parts from both sexes in addition to ovarioles and testes by PCR analysis of 2 B-specific molecular markers. We also elucidated the number of B chromosomes that an individual carried through quantifying the B-located rDNA copy number by qPCR. Our results indicated the amplification of both B-specific markers in all analyzed body parts. However, we found high variation between males for the estimated number of rDNA units in the B chromosomes. These results demonstrate the presence of B chromosomes in all body parts from the same individual and suggest a high variation in the rDNA content of the B chromosomes carried by different individuals from the same population, presumably due to unequal crossovers during meiosis.

Bidau CJ, Rosato M, Martí DA: FISH detection of ribosomal cistrons and assortment-distortion for X and B chromosomes in Dichroplus pratensis (Acrididae). Cytogenet Genome Res 106:295-301 (2004).
Cabrero J, López-León MD, Bakkali M, Camacho JPM: Common origin of B chromosome variants in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. Heredity 83:435-439 (1999).
Camacho JPM: B chromosomes, in Gregory TR (ed): The Evolution of the Genome, pp 223-286 (Elsevier, San Diego 2005).
Camacho JPM, Cabrero J: Karyological differences between two species of grasshoppers genus Acrotylus (Acrididae: Oedipodinae). Caryologia 36:121-127 (1983).
Camacho JPM, Carballo AR, Cabrero J: The B chromosome system of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans sub. plorans (Charpentier). Chromosoma 80:163-166 (1980).
Feng J, Zeng R, Chen J: Accurate and efficient data processing for quantitative real-time PCR using a tripartite plant virus as a model. Biotechniques 44:901-912 (2008).
Fox DP: A non-doubling DNA series in somatic tissues of the locusts Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål) and Locusta migratoria (Linn.). Chromosoma 29:446-461 (1970).
Hall TA: BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucl Acids Symp Ser 41:95-98 (1999).
Henriques-Gil N, Arana P: Origin and substitution of B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. Evolution 44:747-753 (1990).
Henriques-Gil N, Arana P, Santos JL: Factors affecting the meiotic pairing behaviour of B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. Can J Genet Cytol 26:664-668 (1984).
Henriques-Gil N, Jones GH, Cano MI, Arana P, Santos JL: Female meiosis during oocyte maturation in Eyprepocnemis plorans (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Can J Genet Cytol 28:84-87 (1986).
Jackson WD, Cheung DSM: Distortional meiotic segregation of a supernumerary chromosome producing differential frequencies in the sexes in the short-horned grasshopper Phaulacridium vittatum. Chromosoma 23:24-37 (1967).
John B, Hewitt GM: The B-chromosome system of Myrmeleotettix maculatus (Thunb.). I. The mechanics. Chromosoma 16: 548-578 (1965).
Jones RN: Tansley review no. 85: B chromosomes in plants. New Phytol 131:411-434 (1995).
Kayano H: Accumulation of B chromosomes in the germ-line of Locusta migratoria. Heredity 27:119-123 (1971).
López-León MD, Neves N, Schwarzacher T, Heslop-Harrison TS, Hewitt GM, Camacho JPM: Possible origin of a B chromosome deduced from its DNA composition using double FISH technique. Chromosome Res 2:87-92 (1994).
López-León MD, Vázquez P, Hewitt GM, Camacho JPM: Cloning and sequence analysis of an extremely homogeneous tandemly repeated DNA in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. Heredity 75:370-375 (1995).
Mendelson D, Zohary D: Behaviour and transmission of supernumerary chromosomes in Aegilops speltoides. Heredity 2:329-339 (1972).
Mochizuki A: B chromosomes in Aegilops mutica Boiss. Wheat Inform Serv 5:9-11 (1957).
Muñoz-Pajares AJ, Martínez-Rodríguez L, Teruel M, Cabrero J, Camacho JPM, Perfectti F: A Single, recent origin of the accessory B chromosome of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. Genetics 187:853-863 (2011).
Nur U: Mitotic instability leading to an accumulation of B-chromosomes in grasshoppers. Chromosoma 27:1-19 (1969).
Ohta S: A study on B chromosomes in Aegilops mutica Boiss. 1. Distribution within individuals and transmission. Jap J Genet 6:608-609 (1986).
Pardo MC, López-León MD, Viseras E, Cabrero J, Camacho JPM: Mitotic instability of B chromosomes during embryo development in Locusta migratoria. Heredity 74:164-169 (1995).
Remis MI, Vilardi JC: Mitotically unstable B chromosome polymorphism in the grasshopper Dichroplus elongatus. Cytogenet Genome Res 106:359-364 (2004).
Rogers SO, Bendich AJ: Ribosomal RNA genes in plants: variability in copy number and in the intergenic spacer. Plant Mol Biol 9:509-520 (1987).
Rozen S, Skaletsky H: Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers. Methods Mol Biol 132:365-386 (2000).
Ruiz-Estévez M, López-León MD, Cabrero J, Camacho JPM: B-chromosome ribosomal DNA is functional in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. PLoS ONE 7:e36600 (2012).
Ruiz-Estévez M, López-León MD, Cabrero J, Camacho JPM: Ribosomal DNA is active in different B chromosome variants of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. Genetica 141:337-345 (2013).
Rutishauser A, Röthlisberger E: Boosting mechanism of B chromosomes in Crepis capillaris. Chromosomes Today 1:28-30 (1966).
Rutledge RG, Stewart D: A kinetic-based sigmoidal model for the polymerase chain reaction and its application to high-capacity absolute quantitative real-time PCR. BMC Biotechnol 8:47 (2008).
Sommeregger W, Prewein B, Reinhart D, Mader A, Kuner R: Transgene copy number comparison in recombinant mammalian cell lines: critical reflection of quantitative real-time PCR evaluation. Cytotechnology 65:811-818 (2013).
Subrahmanyam NC, Bryncelsson T, Hagberg P, Hagberg A: Differential amplification of rDNA repeats in barley translocation and duplication lines: role of a specific segment. Hereditas 121:157-170 (1994).
Teruel M, Ruiz-Ruano F, Marchal JA, Sánchez A, Cabrero J, et al: Disparate molecular evolution of two types of repetitive DNAs in the genome of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. Heredity 112:531-542 (2014).
Timothy D, Littlewood J, Olson PD: Small subunit rDNA and the platyhelminthes: signal, noise, conflict and compromise, in Littlewood DTJ, Bray RA (eds): Interrelationships of the Platyhelminthes, pp 1-33 (CRC Press, Boca Raton 2000).
Zurita S, Cabrero J, López-León MD, Camacho JPM: Polymorphism regeneration for a neutralized selfish B chromosome. Evolution 52:274-277 (1998).
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.