To develop a set of molecular markers specific for the chromosome arms of rye, a total of 1,098 and 93 primer pairs derived from the expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences distributed on all 21 wheat chromosomes and 7 rye chromosomes, respectively, were initially screened on common wheat ‘Chinese Spring’ and rye cultivar ‘Imperial’. Four hundred and fourteen EST-based markers were specific for the rye genome. Seven disomic chromosome addition lines, 10 telosomic addition lines and 1 translocation line of ‘Chinese Spring-Imperial’ were confirmed by genomic in situ hybridization and fluorescencein situ hybridization, and used to screen the rye-specific markers. Thirty-one of the 414 markers produced stable specific amplicons in ‘Imperial’, as well as individual addition lines and were assigned to 13 chromosome arms of rye except for 6RS. Six rye cultivars, wheat cultivar ‘Xiaoyan 6’ and accessions of 4 wheat relatives were then used to test the specificity of the 31 EST-based markers. To confirm the specificity, 4 wheat-rye derivatives of ‘Xiaoyan 6 × German White’, with chromosomes 1RS, 2R and 4R, were amplified by some of the EST-based markers. The results indicated that they can effectively be used to detect corresponding rye chromosomes or chromosome arms introgressed into a wheat background, and hence to accelerate the utilization of rye genes in wheat breeding.

Adams KL, Wendel JF: Polyploid and genome evolution in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:135–141 (2005).
Hackauf B, Rudd S, van der Voort JR, Miedaner T, Wehling P: Comparative mapping of DNA sequences in rye (Secale cereale L.) in relation to the rice genome. Theor Appl Genet 118:371–384 (2009).
Hsam SL, Zeller FJ: Evidence of allelism between genes Pm8 and Pm17 and chromosomal location of powdery mildew and leaf rust resistance genes in the common wheat cultivar ‘Amigo’. Plant Breeding 116:119–122 (1997).
Iqbal MJ, Rayburn AL: Identification of 1RS rye chromosomal segment in wheat by RAPD analysis. Theor Appl Genet 91:1048–1053 (1995).
Katto MC, Endo TR, Nasuda S: A PCR-based marker for targeting small rye segments in wheat background. Genes Genet Syst 79:245–250 (2004).
Khlestkina EK, Ma HM, Pestsova EG, Röder MS, Malyshev SV, et al: Mapping of 99 new microsatellite-derived loci in rye (Secale cereale L.) including 39 expressed sequence tags. Theor Appl Genet 109:725–732 (2004).
Khlestkina EK, Ma HM, Pestsova EG, Röder MS, Malyshev SV, et al: Mapping of 99 new microsatellite-derived loci in rye (Secale cereale L.) including 39 expressed sequence tags (Erratum). Theor Appl Genet 110:990–991 (2005).
Ko JM, Do GS, Suh DY, Seo BB, Shin DC, Moon HP: Identification and chromosomal organization of two rye genome-specific RAPD products useful as introgression markers in wheat. Genome 45:157–164 (2002).
Koebner RM: Generation of PCR-based markers for the detection of rye chromatin in wheat background. Theor Appl Genet 90:740–745 (1995).
Lapitan NL, Peng JH, Sharma V: A high-density map and PCR markers for Russian wheat aphid resistance gene Dn7 on chromosome 1RS/1BL. Crop Sci 47:811–820 (2007).
LaRota M, Sorrells ME: Comparative DNA sequence analysis of mapped wheat ESTs reveals the complexity of genome relationships between wheat and rice. Funct Integr Genomics 4:34–46 (2004).
Lee TG, Hong MJ, Johnson JW, Bland DE, Kim DY, Seo YW: Development and functional assessment of EST-derived 2RL-specific markers for 2BS.2RL translocations. Theor Appl Genet 119:663–673 (2009).
Li HJ, Conner RL, Liu ZY, Zhou YL, Duan XY, et al: Characterization of wheat-triticale lines resistant to powdery mildew, stem rust, stripe rust, wheat curl mite, and limitation on spread of WSMV. Plant Dis 91:368–374 (2007).
Ma ZQ, Sorrells ME, Tanksley SD: RFLP markers linked to powdery mildew resistance genes Pm1, Pm2, Pm3 and Pm4 in wheat. Genome 37:871–875 (1994).
Mago R, Bariana HS, Dundas IS, Spielmeyer W, Lawrence GJ, et al: Development of PCR markers for the selection of wheat stem rust resistance genes Sr24 and Sr26 in diverse wheat germplasm. Theor Appl Genet 111:496–504 (2005).
McIntyre CL, Pereira S, Moran LB, Appels R: New Secale cereale (rye) DNA derivatives for the detection of ryechromosome segments in wheat. Genome 33:635–640 (1990).
Mohler V, Hsam SL, Zeller FJ, Wenzel G: An STS marker distinguishing the rye-derived powdery mildew resistance alleles at the Pm8/Pm17 locus of common wheat. Plant Breeding 120:448–450 (2001).
Mukai Y, Nakahara Y: Simultaneous discrimination of the three genomes in hexaploid wheat by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization using total genomic and highly repeated DNA probes. Genome 36:489–494 (1993).
Mukai Y, Friebe B, Gill BS: Comparison of C-banding patterns and in situ hybridization sites using highly repetitive and total genomic rye DNA probes of ‘Imperial’ rye chromosomes added to ‘Chinese Spring’ wheat. Jpn J Genet 67:71–83 (1992).
Nagy ED, Lelley T: Genetic and physical mapping of sequence specific amplified polymorphic (SSAP) markers on the 1RS chromosome arm in a wheat background. Theor Appl Genet 107:1271–1277 (2003).
Nagy ED, Christoph E, Molnár-Láng M, Lelley T: Genetic mapping of sequence-specific PCR-based markers on the short arm of the 1BL.1RS wheat rye translocation. Euphytica 132:243–250 (2003).
Qi LL, Echalier B, Chao S, Lazo GR, Butler GE, et al: A chromosome bin map of 16,000 EST loci and distribution of genes among the three genomes of polyploid wheat. Genetics 168:701–712 (2004).
Rabinovich SV: Importance of wheat-rye translocation for breeding modern cultivars of Triticum aestivum L. Euphytica 100:323–340 (1998).
Rayburn AL, Gill BS: Molecular identification of the D genome chromosomes of wheat. J Heredity 77:253–255 (1986).
Saal B, Wricke G: Development of simple sequence repeat markers in rye (Secale cereale L.). Genome 42:964–972 (1999).
Schneider A, Molnár-Láng M: Polymorphism analysis using 1RS-specific molecular markers in rye cultivars (Secale cereale L.) of various origin. Cereal Res Commun 36:11–19 (2008).
Tixier MH, Sourdille PM: Detection of wheat microsatellite using no-radioactive silvermitrate staining method. Genet Breed 51:175–177 (1997).
Vaillancourt A, Nkongolo KK, Michael P, Mehes M: Identification, characterisation, and chromosome locations of rye and wheat specific ISSR and SCAR markers useful for breeding purposes. Euphytica 159:297–306 (2008).
Wang CM, Li LH, Zhang XT, Gao Q, Wang RF, An DG: Development and application of EST-STS markers specific to chromosome 1RS of Secale cereale.Cereal Res Commun 37:13–21 (2009a).
Wang CM, Zheng Q, Li LH, Niu YC, Wang HB, et al: Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a new T2BL·1RS wheat-rye chromosome translocation line. Plant Dis 93:124–129 (2009b).
Wang D, Zhuang LF, Sun L, Feng YG, Pei ZY, Qi ZJ: Allocation of a powdery mildew resistance locus to the chromosome arm 6RL of Secale cereale L. cv. ‘Jingzhouheimai’. Euphytica 176:157–166 (2010).
Wang QX, Xiang JS, Gao AN, Yang XM, Liu WH, et al: Analysis of chromosomal structural polymorphisms in the St, P, and Y genomes of Triticeae (Poaceae). Genome 53:241–249 (2010).
Zhang LY, Bernard M, Leroy P, Feuillet C, Sourdille P: High transferability of bread wheat EST-derived SSRs to other cereals. Theor Appl Genet 111:677–687 (2005).
Zhang LY, Bernard M, Ravel C, Balfourier F, Leroy P, et al: Wheat EST-SSRs for tracing chromosome segments from a wide range of grass species. Plant Breeding 126:251–258 (2007).
Zhuang LF, Song LX, Feng YG, Qian BL, Xu HB, et al: Development and chromosome mapping of new wheat EST-SSR markers and application for characterizing rye chromosomes added in wheat. Acta Agron Sin 34:926–933 (2008).
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.