Radiation hybrid (RH) and HAPPY mapping are two technologies used in animal systems that have attracted the attention of the plant genetics community because they bridge the resolution gap between meiotic and BAC-based physical mapping that would facilitate the analysis of plant species lacking substantial genomics resources. Research has shown that the essence of these approaches can be applied and that a variety of strategies can be used to produce mapping panels. Mapping panels composed of live plants, protoplast fusion cultures, and sub-genomic DNA samples have been described. The resolution achievable by RH mapping panels involving live-plant derivatives of a monosomic maize (Zea mays) chromosome 9 addition in allohexaploid oat (Avena sativa), a monosomic chromosome 1D addition in allotetraploid durum wheat (Triticum turgidum), and interspecific hybrids between two tetraploid cotton species (G. hirsutum and G. barbadense), has been estimated to range from 0.6 to 6 Mb. On the other hand, a more comprehensive evaluation of one panel from durum wheat suggests that a higher mapping resolution (∼200 kb) is possible. In cases involving RH mapping panels based on barley (Hordeum vulgare)-tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplast fusions or a HAPPY mapping panel based on genomic DNA from Arabidopsis thaliana, the potential mapping resolution appears to be higher (50 to 200 kb). Despite these encouraging results, the application of either RH or HAPPY mapping in plants is still in the experimental phase and additional work is clearly needed before these methods are more routinely utilized.

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