Cytogenetics of wild and captive bred non-domestic animals provides us with valuable information that can be implemented in wildlife management and species conservation strategies. In this review, we summarized the data published to date describing a range of chromosome abnormalities observed in non-domestic animals and their effect on phenotype. Two important factors that can potentially have drastic effects on captive breeding programs are discussed: presence of classic chromosome abnormalities, spontaneously-occurring and inherited, and intraspecific variations in chromosome number. Short-term consequences, primarily reduced reproductive efficiency, and long-term consequences, such as changes in population dynamics, are examined.

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