Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones to orangutan metaphase spreads localized a breakpoint between human chromosome 3p25.1 and orangutan chromosome 2 to a <30-kb interval. The inversion occurred in a relatively gene-rich region with seven genes within 500 kb. The underlying breakpoint is closely juxtaposed to validated genes, however no functional gene has been disrupted by the evolutionary rearrangement. An approximately 21-kb DNA segment at the 3p25.1 breakpoint region has been duplicated intrachromosomally and interchromosomally to multiple regions in the orangutan and human genomes, providing additional evidence for the role of segmental duplications in hominoid chromosome evolution.

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