Comparative mapping between the rat and mouse genomes has shown that some chromosomes are entirely or almost entirely conserved with respect to gene content. Such is the case of rat chromosome 11 (RNO11) and mouse chromosome 16 (MMU16). We determined to what extent such an extensive conservation of synteny is associated with a conserved gene order. Therefore, we regionally localized several genes on RNO11. The comparison of the gene map of RNO11 and MMU16 unambiguously shows that the gene order has not been conserved in the Murinae lineage, thereby implying the occurrence of intrachromosomal evolutionary rearrangements. The transition from one chromosome configuration to the other one can be explained either by two intrachromosomal recombinations or by a single intrachromosomal recombination accompanied by neocentromere emergence.    

Bodner M, Castrillo JL, Theill LE, Deerinck T, Ellisman M, Karin M: The pituitary-specific transcription factor GHF-1 is a homeobox-containing protein. Cell 55:505–518 (1988).
Danielson PE, Watson JB, Gerendasy DD, Erlander MG, Lovenberg TW, de Lecea L, Sutcliffe JG, Frankel WN: Chromosomal mapping of mouse genes expressed selectively within the central nervous system. Genomics 19:454–461 (1994).
De Strooper B, Van Leuven F, Van den Bergh H: The amyloid beta protein precursor or proteinase nexin II from mouse is closer related to its human homolog than previously reported. Biochim Biophys Acta 1129:141–143 (1991).
Francke U, Taggart RT: Comparative gene mapping: order of loci on the X chromosome is different in mice and humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:3595–3599 (1980).
Jacob HJ, Kwitek AE: Rat genetics: attaching physiology and pharmacology to the genome. Nat Rev Genet 3:33–42 (2002).
Laes JF, Van Vooren P, Szpirer J, Szpirer C: Assignment of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes Cdkn2a and Cdkn2b to rat chromosome bands 5q32→q34 and 5q31→q33, respectively by fluorescence in situ hybridization, using small PCR-generated probes. Cytogenet Cell Genet 81:290–291 (1998).
Levan G: Nomenclature for G-bands in rat chromosome. Hereditas 77:37–52 (1974).
Levan G, Szpirer J, Szpirer C, Klinga K, Hanson C, Islam MQ: The gene map of the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) and comparative mapping with mouse and man. Genomics 10:699–718 (1991).
Meier E, Fäh J, Grob MS, End R, Staeheli P, Haller O: A family of interferon-induced Mx-related mRNAs encode cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins in rat cells. J Virol 62:2386–2393 (1998).
Millwood IY, Bihoreau MT, Gauguier D, Hyne G, Levy ER, Kreutz R, Lathrop GM, Monaco AP: A gene-based genetic linkage and comparative map of the rat X chromosome. Genomics 40:253–261 (1997).
Nilsson S, Helou K, Walentinsson A, Szpirer C, Nerman O, Stahl F: Rat-mouse and rat-human comparative maps based on gene homology and high-resolution zoo-FISH. Genomics 74:287–298 (2001).
Richard F, Vogt N, Muleris M, Malfoy B, Dutrillaux B: Increased FISH efficiency using APC probes generated by direct incorporation of labeled nucleotides by PCR. Cytogenet Cell Genet 65:169–171 (1994).
Sapru MK, Florance SK, Kirk C, Goldman D: Identification of a neuregulin and protein-tyrosine phosphatase response element in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit gene: regulatory role of an Rts transcription factor. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 95:1289–1294 (1998).
Sokoloff P, Giros B, Martres MP, Bouthenet ML, Schwartz JC: Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel dopamine receptor (D3) as a target for neuroleptics. Nature 347:146–151 (1970).
Sommer B, Burnashev N, Verdoorn TA, Keinänen K, Sakman B, Seeburg PH: A glutamate receptor channel with high affinity for domoate and kainate. EMBO J 11:1651–1656 (1992).
Steen RG, Kwitek-Black AE, Glenn C, Gullings-Handley J, Van Etten W, Atkinson OS, Appel D, Twigger S, Muir M, Mull T, et al: A radiation hybrid map of the rat genome. Genome Res 9:AP1–AP8 (1999).
Stephanova E, Tissir F, Dusetti D, Iovanna J, Szpirer J, Szpirer C: The rat genes encoding the pancreatitis-associated proteins I, II and III (Pap1, Pap2, Pap3) and the lithostathin/pancreatic stone protein/regeneration protein (Reg) colocalize at 4q33→34. Cytogenet Cell Genet 72:83–85 (1996).
Szpirer C, Rivière M, Nakamura T, Cortese R, Islam MQ, Levan G, Szpirer J: Chromosomal localization in man and rat of the genes encoding the liver-enriched transcription factors C/EBP, DBP and HNF1/LFB-1 (CEBP, DBP and transcription factor 1, TCF1, respectively), and of the hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor gene (HGF). Genomics 13:293–300 (1992).
Szpirer C, Szpirer J, Van Vooren P, Tissir F, Simon JS, Koike G, Jacob HJ, Lander ES, Helou K, Klinga-Levan K, et al: Gene-based anchoring of the rat genetic linkage and cytogenetic maps: new regional localizations, orientation of the linkage groups and insights in mammalian chromosome evolution. Mamm Genome 9:721–734 (1998).
Ventura M, Archidiacono N, Rocchi M: Centromere emergence in evolution. Genome Res 11:595–599 (2001).
Watanabe TK, Bihoreau MT, McMarthy LC, Kiguwa SL, Hishigaki H, Tsuji A, Browne J, Yamasaki Y, Mizoguchi-Miyakita A, Oga K, et al: A radiation hybrid map of the rat genome containing 5,255 markers. Nat Genet 22:27–36 (1999).
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.