We performed multi-directional chromosome painting in a comparative cytogenetic study of the three Atelinae species Brachyteles arachnoides, Ateles paniscus paniscus and Ateles belzebuth marginatus, in order to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within this Platyrrhini subfamily. Comparative chromosome maps between these species were established by multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) employing human, Saguinus oedipus and Lagothrix lagothricha chromosome-specific probes. The three species included in this study and four previously analyzed species from all four Atelinae genera were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis on the basis of a data matrix comprised of 82 discrete chromosome characters. The results confirmed that Atelinae represent a monophyletic clade with a putative ancestral karyotype of 2n = 62 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed an evolutionary branching sequence {Alouatta {Brachyteles {Lagothrix and Ateles}}} in Atelinae and {Ateles belzebuth marginatus {Ateles paniscus paniscus {Ateles belzebuth hybridus and Ateles geoffroyi}}} in genus Ateles. The chromosomal data support a re-evaluation of the taxonomic status of Ateles b. hybridus.   

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