Information on B chromosomes of six subspecies of A. peninsulae Thomas, 1906, from 79 local populations of Russia (Siberia, Altai, Buryatia and the Far East), Mongolia, China, Korea and Japan (Hokkaido) is reviewed. The frequency of animals with B chromosomes is higher in this taxon than in other mammals and ranges from 0.4 up to 1.0, excluding two insular populations (Sakhalin Island and Stenin Island, Primorye) where Bs were not found. The B chromosome polymorphism shows four levels of variation in number (intraindividual mosaicism, intrapopulational and interpopulational), as well as variability in size, morphology and differential staining. Geographic variation was found among populations for these cytogenetic characteristics and, in some cases, it coincided with subspecies distribution. Comparative chromosome banding of micro and macro Bs illuminates possible pathways for their origin.   

1.
Abe S, Han SH, Kojima H, Ishibashi Y, Yoshida MC: Differential staining profiles of B-chromosomes in the East-Asiatic wood mouse Apodemus peninsulae. Chromosome Sci l:7–12 (1997).
2.
Bekasova TS: B-chromosomes of Asiatic wood mice Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia, Muridae). Voprosy izmenchivosti i zoogeographii mlekopitaushih: 14–29 (Vladivostok 1984).
3.
Bekasova TS, Vorontsov NN: Populational chromosome polymorphism in Asiatic Forest mice Apodemus peninsulae. Russ J Genetics 11:89–94 (1975).
4.
Bekasova TS, Vorontsov NN, Korobitsyna KV, Korablev VP: B-chromosomes and comparative karyology of the mice of the genus Apodemus. Genetica 52–53:33–43 (1980).
5.
Belyaev DK, Volobuev VT, Radjabli SI, Trut LN: Polymorphism and mosaicism for additional chromosomes in silver foxes. Russ J Genetics 10:58–67 (1974).
6.
Boeskorov GG, Kartavtseva IV, Zagorodnyuk IV, Belyanin AN, Lyapunova EA: Nucleolus organizer regions and B-chromosomes of wood mice (Mammalia, Rodentia, Apodemus). Russ J Genetics 31:185–192 (1995).
7.
Borbiev TE: B-chromosomes of East-Asiatic Mouse (Apodemus peninsulae): Variability and Meiotic Behavior. Ph.D. Thesis (Moscow 1991).
8.
Borbiev TE, Kolomiets OL, Borisov YM, Safronova LD, Bogdanov YF: Synaptonemal complexes of A- and B-chromosomes in spermatocytes of the East-Asiatic mouse Apodemus peninsulae. Tsitologiya 32:193–196 (1990).
9.
Borisov YuM: Geographical changes of the variants of supernumerary chromosomes system in continental form of Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia, Muridae). Izvestiya Sib Otd Akad Nauk SSSR Ser Biol Nauki 15:61–69 (1980).
10.
Borisov YuM: System of B chromosomes in wood mouse as an integrating and differentiating characteristic of populations. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 288:720–724 (1986).
11.
Borisov YuM: Cytogenetic structure of Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia, Muridae) population on the coast of Teletskoye Lake (Altai). Russ J Genetics 26:1212–1220 (1990a).
12.
Borisov YuM: Variability cytogenetic structure of Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia, Muridae) populations in West Sayans. Russ J Genetics 26:1484–1491 (1990b).
13.
Borisov YuM: Cytogenetic differentiation of Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia, Muridae) population in East Siberia. Russ J Genetics 26:1828–1839 (1990c).
14.
Borisov YuM: The system of B-chromosomes is a marker of Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia, Muridae) populations in the Pribaikal Region. Russ J Genetics 26:2215–2225 (1990d).
15.
Borisov YuM, Malygin VM: Cline variability of the B-chromosome system in Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia, Muridae) from the Buryatia and Mongolia. Tsitologiya 33:106–111 (1991).
16.
Camacho JPM, Sharbel TF, Beukeboom LW: B-chromosome evolution. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 355:163–178 (2000).
17.
Corbet GB: The Mammals of the Palearctic Regions: A Taxonomic Review (Cornell University Press, London 1978).
18.
Hayata I: Chromosomal polymorphism caused by supernumerary chromosomes in the field mouse, Apodemus giliacus. Chromosoma 42:403–414 (1973).
19.
Hayata I, Shimba H, Kobayashi T, Makino S: Preliminary accounts on the chromosomal polymorphism in the field mouse, Apodemus giliacus, a new form from Hokkaido. Proc Jpn Acad 46:567–571 (1970).
20.
Ishak B, Jaafar H, Maetz JL, Rumpler Y: Absence of transcriptional activity of the B-chromosomes of Apodemus peninsulae during pachytene. Chromosoma 100:278–281 (1991).
21.
Karamysheva TV, Andreenkova OV, Bochkaerev MN, Borissov YM, Bogdanchikova N, Borodin PM, Rubtsov NB: B chromosomes of Korean field mouse Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia, Murinae) analysed by microdissection and FISH. Cytogenet Genome Res 96:154–160 (2002).
22.
Kartavtseva IV: Seasonal observations on supernumerary chromosomes, mosaicism, and dynamics in two populations of the Eastern-Asian wood mouse Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia) from Primorskii Krai. Russ J Genetics 8:811–817 (1999).
23.
Kartavtseva IV: Karyosystematics of wood and field mice (Rodentia, Muridae). (Dalnauka, Vladivostok 2002).
24.
Kartavtseva IV, Roslik GV, Pavlenko MV, Amachaeva EYu, Sawaguchi S, Obara Y: The B-chromosome system of the Korean field mouse Apodemus peninsulae in the Russian Far East. Chromosome Sci 4:21–29 (2000).
25.
Koh HS: Systematic studies of Korean rodents: II. A chromosome analysis in Korean field mice, Apodemus peninsulae peninsulae Thomas (Muridae, Rodentia), from Mungyong, with the comparison of morphometric characters of these Korean field mice to sympatric striped field mice, A. agrarius corea Thomas. Korean J Syst Zool 2:1–10 (1986).
26.
Koh HS, Lee WJ: Geographic variation of morphometric characters in five subspecies of Korean field mice, Apodemus peninsulae Thomas (Rodentia, Mammalia) in Eastern Asia. Korean J Zool 37:33–39 (1994).
27.
Kolomiets OL, Borbiev TE, Safronova LD, Borisov YM, Bogdanov YF: Synaptonemal complex analysis of B-chromosome behavior in meiotic prophase I in the East-Asiatic mouse Apodemus peninsulae (Muridae, Rodentia). Cytogenet Cell Genet 48:183–187 (1988).
28.
Kral B: Chromosome characteristics of certain murine rodents (Muridae) of the Asiatic part of the USSR. Zool Listy 20:331–347 (1971).
29.
Musser GG, Carleton MD: Family Muridae, in Wilson DE, Reeder DM (eds): Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Second edition, pp 501–755 (Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington 1993).
30.
Pavlenko MV: The intraspecific differentiation and genogeography of transferrins in the East-Asian mouse Apodemus peninsula, in: The Present-Day Approaches to Studies of Variability, pp 61–63 (Far Eastern Science Center Academy Science of USSR, Vladivistok 1989).
31.
Popova NA, Timina NY, Frumkis AE: Behaviour of B-chromosomes of Asiatic forest mouse on the diakinesis – metaphase I stage. Probl Popul Evol Cytogenet Plants Animals 61:124–127 (Tomsk University, Tomsk 1980).
32.
Radjabli CI, Borisov YM: Variants of the system of supernumerary chromosomes in continental forms of Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia, Muridae). Dokl Acad Nauk SSSR 248:979–981 (1979).
33.
Roslik GV, Kartavtseva IV, Kosoy M: Dot-like B-chromosomes in Korean field mouse (Apodemus peninsulae, Rodentia) originated from a female artificially infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus. Abstr Intern Symp Modern Achiv in Pop Evol and Ecol Genet: 15 (Vladivostok 1998).
34.
Roslik GV, Kartavtseva IV, Iwasa M: Variability and stability of B chromosome number in the Korean field mouse, Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia, Muridae) from continental and insular populations. Problems Evol 5:136–149 (Dalnauka, Vladivostok 2003).
35.
Rubtsov NB, Karamysheva TV, Andreenkova OV, Bochkaerev MN, Kartavtseva IV, Roslik GV, Borissov YM: Comparative analysis of micro and macro B chromosomes in the Korean field mouse Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia, Murinae) performed by chromosome microdissection and FISH. Cytogenet Genome Res 106:289–294 (2004).
36.
Sawaguchi S, Obara Y, Kartavtseva IV, Roslik GV, Shin HE, Han SH: Novel maintenance mode of the B chromosomes in Apodemus peninsulae from 4 areas bordering on the Sea of Japan. Abstr Intern Symp Modern Achiev in Pop Evol and Ecol Genet: 16–17 (Vladivostok 1998).
37.
Serisawa K, Suzuki H, Iwasa MA, Tsuchiya K, Pavlenko MV, Kartavtseva IV, Chelomina GN, Dokuchaev NE, Han SH: A spatial aspect on mitochondrial DNA genealogy in Apodemus peninsulae from East Asia. Biochem Genet 40:149–161 (2002).
38.
Timina NY, Popova NA, Nagrebetskaya MI, Mikhaylova EA: Polymorphism and mosaicism for B-chromosomes in Asiatic forest mouse Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia, Muridae). Problems of populational and evolutional cytogenetics of plants and animals:128–138 (Tomsk Univ., Tomsk 1980)
39.
Trifonov VA, Perelman PL, Kawada S-I, Iwasa MA, Oda S-I, Graphodatsky AS: Complex structure B-chromosomes in two mammalian species: Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia) and Nyctereutes procyonides (Carnivora). Chromosome Res 10:109–116 (2002).
40.
Volobuev VT: B-chromosome of the mammals. Usp Sovr Biol 86:387–398 (1978).
41.
Volobuev VT: Karyological analysis of three Siberian populations of Asiatic wood mouse, Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia, Muridae). Doklady AN SSSR 248:1452–1454 (1979).
42.
Volobuev VT: B-chromosome system of the Asiatic wood mice Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia, Muridae). I. Structure of karyotype, G- and C-bands, and the character of variation of B-chromosomes. Russ J Genet 16:1277–1284 (1980a).
43.
Volobuev VT: The B-chromosome system of mammals. Genetica 52–53:333–337 (1980b).
44.
Volobuev VT: B-chromosome system of the mammals. Caryologia 34:1–23 (1981).
45.
Vorontsov NN, Bekasova TS, Kral B, Korobitsyna KV, Ivanitskaya EYu: On specific status of Asian wood mice of genus Apodemus (Rodentia, Muridae) from Siberia and Far East. Zool Zh 56: 437–450 (1977).
46.
Wang J, Zhao X, Qi H, Koh HS, Zhang L, Guan Z, Wang CH: Karyotypes and B chromosomes of Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia, Mammalia). Acta Theriol Sinica 20:289–296 (2000).
47.
Wójcik JM, Wójcik AM, Macholan M, Piálek J, Zima J: The mammalian model for population studies of B chromosomes: the wood mice (Apodemus). Cytogenet Genome Res 106:264–270 (2004).
48.
Yakimenko LV, Kartavtseva IV, Korobitsyna KV: Cytogenetic abnormalities in house, wood and striped mice in vicinities of chemical and leadplants. Abstr The 2 Symp Ecol Genet in Mamm: 25–26 (Lodz, Poland, 1994).
49.
Zima J, Ieradi LA, Allegra F, Sartoretti A, Wlosoková E, Cristaldi M: Frequencies of B chromosomes in Apodemus flavicollis are not directly related to mutagenetic environmental effects. Folia Zool 48:115–119 (1999).
50.
Zima J, Macholan M: B-chromosomes in the wood mice (genus Apodemus). Acta Theriol 40:75–86 (1995).
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.