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Background and Purpose: We aimed to determine predictors of early (END) and delayed neurological deterioration (DND) and their association with functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) who participated in the international Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study (ENCHANTED). Methods: END and DND were defined as scores of a ≥2 point increase on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) or ≥1 point decrease on Glasgow coma scale, or death, from baseline to 24 hours and 24 hours to 72 hours, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine independent predictors of END and DND and their association with 90-day outcomes (dichotomous scores on the modified Rankin scale [mRS] of 2-6 vs 0-1 and 3-6 vs 0-2, and death). Results: Of 4496 patients, 871 (19.4%) and 302 (8.4%) patients experienced END and DND, respectively. Higher baseline NIHSS score, older age, large artery occlusion due to significant atheroma, cardioembolic stroke subtype, hemorrhagic infarction and parenchymatous hematoma within 24 hours, were all independent predictors for both END (all P ≤0.01) and DND (all P ≤0.024). Moreover, higher baseline systolic blood pressure (BP) (odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.12), higher diastolic BP variability within 24 hours (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.09), patients from Asia (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03-1.52) were the only independent predictors for END. However, Asian ethnicity was negatively associated with DND (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.47-0.86). Hemorrhagic infarction and parenchymatous hematoma within 24 hours were the key predictor of END across all stroke subtypes. END and DND were all associated with a poor functional outcome at 90 days (all P<0.001). Conclusions: We identified overlapping and unique demographic and clinical predictors of END and DND after thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. Both END and DND predict unfavorable outcomes at 90 days.

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