Introduction: We utilized data from the Third China National Stroke Registry to investigate the prevalence of atrial cardiopathy markers in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) and to assess their association with death and stroke recurrence. Methods: In China, patients experiencing transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke were recruited consecutively by the Third China National Stroke Registry. We compared atrial cardiopathy markers, such as left atrial (LA) enlargement, increased P-wave terminal force in lead V1 (PTFV1), premature atrial contractions, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, advanced interatrial block, prolonged PR interval, prolonged P-wave dispersion, and prolonged P-wave duration between ESUS patients and those with small vessel disease and large artery atherosclerosis strokes. The association between these markers and the recurrence of stroke as well as mortality risk in ESUS patients was evaluated using Cox regression analysis. Results: Of 8,528 ischemic stroke patients who underwent a standard diagnostic workup, 2,415 were identified as having ESUS. Multivariable analysis revealed a significant association between elevated PTFV1 and an increased risk of stroke recurrence (HR: 2.50; 95% CI: 1.53–4.09; p < 0.01) as well as mortality (HR: 3.76; 95% CI: 1.58–8.91; p < 0.01) at 1 year in patients with ESUS. Furthermore, we observed that moderate-severe LA enlargement slightly increased the risk of stroke recurrence in patients with ESUS (HR: 1.95; 95% CI: 0.90–4.26; p = 0.09). Both LA diameter (HR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00–1.06; p = 0.03) and the top quartile of the LA diameter index (HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.03–2.40; p = 0.04) were associated with stroke recurrence in patients with ESUS. Conclusions: PTFV1 was independently associated with an elevated risk of stroke recurrence and mortality in ESUS patients. Additionally, a trend toward a correlation between LA enlargement and high stroke recurrence risk after ESUS was observed.

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