Background: Clinical outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) caused by large vessel occlusion (LVO) is not satisfactory if reperfusion treatment fails or is not tried. Aims: We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of urgent superficial temporal-to-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery in selected patients. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with LVO-induced AIS in the anterior circulation but had a failed intra-arterial thrombectomy (IAT) or were not tried due to IAT contraindications were prospectively enrolled. Timely urgent STA-MCA bypass surgery was performed if they showed perfusion-diffusion mismatch or symptom-diffusion mismatch in the acute phase of disease. Clinical and radiological data of these patients were assessed to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of urgent bypass procedures. A pooled analysis of published data on urgent bypass surgery in acute stroke patients was conducted and analyzed. Results: In 18 patients who underwent timely bypass, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score improved from 12.11 ± 4.84 to 9.89 ± 6.52, 1 week after surgery. Three-month and long-term (9.72 ± 5.00 months) favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] scores 0–2) were achieved in 50 and 75% of the patients, respectively. The pooled analysis (117 patients from 10 articles, including ours) identified favorable mRS scores in 71.79% patients at 3 months. A significant NIHSS score improvement from 11.51 ± 4.89 to 7.59 ± 5.50 was observed after surgery with significance. Major complications occurred in 3 patients (2.6%, 3/117) without mortality. Conclusions: Urgent STA-MCA bypass surgery can be regarded as a safe optional treatment to prevent cerebral infarct expansion and to improve clinical and radiological outcomes in highly selected patients.