Objective: Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) after a ruptured arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is rarely reported. This study is aimed at evaluating the predictive variables in AVM hemorrhage for CVS. Methods: A total of 160 patients with ruptured AVMs were admitted to our neurosurgical department from 2002 to 2018. The frequency of cerebral vasospasm after AVM hemorrhage and the impact of AVM-associated aneurysms were evaluated. We compared different bleeding patterns, such as intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) or a combination of both (ICH + SAH) and evaluated predictive variables for outcome in last follow-up. Results: A total of 62 (39%) patients had AAA, mostly located prenidal (75.8%). AVMs with ruptured aneurysms often resulted in ICH with SAH component (p < 0.001). Eighty-two patients (51%) presented a SAH component, and CVS occurred in 6 patients (7.3%), mostly due to a ruptured infratentorial AVM (p < 0.03). Infratentorial location and the amount of SAH component (p < 0.001) predicted the incidence of CVS significantly. Cerebral infarction was significantly associated with CVS (p < 0.02). Conclusion: SAH component and infratentorial location of ruptured AVMs may harbor a higher risk for CVS. Follow-up with angiographic imaging should be considered in patients with infratentorial AVM hemorrhage and delayed neurologic deterioration to rule out CVS.

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