Background: This study assessed the incidence and predictors of short-term stroke recurrence in ischemic stroke patients with active cancer, and elucidated whether cancer-associated hypercoagulation is related to early recurrent stroke. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled acute ischemic stroke patients with active cancer admitted to our hospital between 2006 and 2017. Active cancer was defined as diagnosis or treatment for any cancer within 12 months before stroke onset, known recurrent cancer or metastatic disease. The primary clinical outcome was recurrent ischemic stroke within 30 days. Results: One hundred ten acute ischemic stroke patients with active cancer (73 men, age 71.3 ± 10.1 years) were enrolled. Of those, recurrent stroke occurred in 12 patients (11%). When patients with and without recurrent stroke were compared, it was found that those with recurrent stroke had a higher incidence of pancreatic cancer (33 vs. 10%), systemic metastasis (75 vs. 39%), multiple vascular territory infarctions (MVTI; 83 vs. 40%), and higher -D-dimer levels (16.9 vs. 2.9 µg/mL). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that each factor mentioned above was not significantly associated with stroke recurrence independently, but high D-dimer (hDD) levels (≥10.4 µg/mL) and MVTI together were significantly associated with stroke recurrence (OR 6.20, 95% CI 1.42–30.7, p = 0.015). Conclusions: Ischemic stroke patients with active cancer faced a high risk of early recurrent stroke. The concurrence of hDD levels (≥10.4 µg/mL) and MVTI was an independent predictor of early recurrent stroke in active cancer patients. Our findings suggest that cancer-associated hypercoagulation increases the early recurrent stroke risk.

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