Up until the 17th century, ideas surrounding the discovery of encephalic arteries were to remain largely influenced by the political and religious ideologies of the era. Parts of the encephalic arterial system have been called after several anatomists from this earlier period. From the 18th century onwards, scientists and doctors in particular, liberated themselves from the political and religious trends which had governed their work in previous centuries. Some progress was made by applying the clinico-anatomical method to neurology, but it was only at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century that discoveries about encephalic arteries had gained ground. During the same period, anatomists in several countries were producing detailed descriptions of this arterial system. Moreover, this period saw the advent of the first generation of vascular neurologists, one of whom, Charles Foix, is considered as the founder of the discipline.

1.
Clarke E: Cerebrovascular system. Historical aspects; in Newton TH, Potts DG (eds): Radiology of the Skull and Brain. Angiography. Saint Louis, The CV Mosby Company, 1974.
2.
Luzzatti C, Whitaker H: Johannes Schenck and Johannes Jakob Wepfer: clinical and anatomical observations in the prehistory of neurolinguistics and neuropsychology. J Neuroling 1995;9:157–164.
3.
Gurdjian ES, Gurdjian ES: History of occlusive cerebrovascular disease. From Wepfer to Moniz. Arch Neurol 1979;36:340–343.
4.
Pearce JMS: Johann Jakob Wepfer (1620–1695) and cerebral hemorrhage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997;62:387.
5.
Pearce JMS: Wepfer’s description of the apoplexy of Malpighi. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997;62:394.
6.
Grand W: The anatomy of the brain, by Thomas Willis. Neurosurgery 1999;45:1234–1237.
7.
Hughes JT: Thomas Willis (1621–1675). J Neurol 2000;247:151–152.
8.
Clarke E: Histoire illustrée de la fonction cérébrale. Paris, Dacosta, 1984.
9.
Wolpert SM: The circle of Willis. Am J Neuroradiol 1997;18:1033–1034.
10.
Pearce JMS: The circle of Willis (1621–1675). J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;69:86.
11.
Poirier J, Derouesné C: La neurologie à l’Assistance Publique et en particulier à la Salpêtrière avant Charcot. Rev Neurol (Paris) 2000;156:607–615.
12.
Duret H: Note sur la circulation du corps strié. Progr Méd (Paris) 1873;1:259–260.
13.
Duret H: Note sur la distribution des artères nourricières des circonvolutions cérébrales. Progr Méd (Paris) 1873;2:275–276.
14.
Duret H: Sur la distribution des artères nourricières du bulbe rachidien. Arch Anat Physiol Norm Pathol 1873;5:97–114.
15.
Duret H: Recherches anatomiques sur la circulation de l’encéphale. Arch Anat Physiol Norm Pathol 1874;6:60–91.
16.
Duret H: Recherches anatomiques sur la circulation de l’encéphale. 3. Artères corticales ou des circonvolutions cérébrales. Arch Anat Physiol Norm Pathol 1874;6:317–353.
17.
Duret H: Revue critique de quelques recherches récentes sur la circulation cérébrale. Encéphale 1910;1:7–27.
18.
Heubner O: Zur Topographie des Ernährungsgebietes der einzelnen Hirnarterien. Centralbl Med Wiss 1872;52:817–821.
19.
Haroun RI, Rigamonti D, Camargo RJ: Recurrent artery of Heubner: Otto Heubner’s description of the artery and his influence on pediatrics in Germany. J Neurosurg 2000;93:1084–1088.
20.
Beevor CE: The cerebral arterial supply. Brain 1907;30:403–425.
21.
Beevor CE: On the distribution of the different arteries supplying the human brain. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 1909;200:1–55.
22.
Tashiro K: Charles Edward Beevor (1854–1908). J Neurol 2001;248:635–636.
23.
Shellshear JL: The basal arteries of the forebrain and their functional significance. J Anat 1920;55:27–35.
24.
Shellshear JL: Blood supply of the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum. Lancet 1922;102:1046–1047.
25.
Shellshear JL: The blood supply of the hypoglossal nucleus. J Anat 1927;61:279–285.
26.
Shellshear JL: A contribution to our knowledge of the arterial supply of the cerebral cortex in man. Brain 1927;50:236–253.
27.
Abbie AA: The clinical significance of the anterior choroidal artery. Brain 1933;56:233–246.
28.
Abbie AA: The blood supply of the lateral geniculate body, with a note on the morphology of the choroidal arteries. J Anat 1933;67:492–521.
29.
Abbie AA: The morphology of the fore-brain arteries with especial reference to the evolution of the basal ganglia. J Anat 1934;68:433–470.
30.
Abbie AA: The anatomy of capsular vascular disease. Med J Aust 1937;2:564–568.
31.
Abbie AA: The blood supply of the visual pathways. Med J Aust 1938;2:199–203.
32.
Aitken HF: Diagram of the arterial circulation of the basal ganglia. N Engl J Med 1928;169:1084.
33.
Ayer JB, Aitken HF: Note on the arteries of the corpus striatum. Boston Med Surg J 1907;156:768–771.
34.
Ayer JB, Aitken HF: A report on the circulation of the lobar ganglia. Boston Med Surg J 1909;160:25.
35.
De Vriese B: Sur les artères de la base du cerveau. Verh Anat Ges 1904;18:88–99.
36.
De Vriese B: Sur la signification morphologique des artères cérébrales. Arch Biol 1905;21:357–457.
37.
Stopford JSB: The arteries of the pons and medulla oblongata. Part 1. J Anat Physiol 1916;30:131–164.
38.
Stopford JSB: The arteries of the pons and medulla oblongata. Part 2. J Anat Physiol 1916;30:256–280.
39.
Azelais, d’Astros L: La circulation artérielle du pédoncule cérébral. J Anat Physiol Norm Pathol 1892;28:519–528.
40.
Azelais, d’Astros L: Les artères nourricières des noyaux du moteur oculaire commun et du pathétique. C R Séances Soc Biol Fil 1892;44:193.
41.
Hillemand P: Charles Foix et son œuvre 1882–1927. Clio Med 1976;4:269–287.
42.
Caplan LR: Charles Foix. The first modern stroke neurologist. Stroke 1990;21:348–356.
43.
Foix C, Hillemand P: Irrigation de la protubérance. C R Séances Soc Biol Fil 1925;92:35–36.
44.
Foix C, Hillemand P: Irrigation du pédoncule cérébral. C R Séances Soc Biol Fil 1925;92:608–610.
45.
Foix C, Hillemand P: Irrigation de la couche optique. C R Séances Soc Biol Fil 1925;92:52–54.
46.
Foix C, Hillemand P: Les artères de l’axe encéphalique jusqu’au diencéphale inclusivement. Rev Neurol (Paris) 1925;41:705–739.
47.
Foix C, Hillemand P: Contribution à l’étude des ramollissements protubérantiels. Rev Méd (Paris) 1925;43:287–305.
48.
Foix C, Hillemand P: Les syndromes de l’artère cérébrale antérieure. Encéphale 1925;20:209–232.
49.
Foix C, Lévy M: Les ramollissements sylviens. Syndromes des lésions en foyer du territoire de l’artère sylvienne et de ses branches. Rev Neurol (Paris) 1927;43:1–51.
50.
Foix C, Masson A: Le syndrome de l’artère cérébrale postérieure. Presse Méd 1923;32:361–365.
51.
Foix C, Chavany H, Hillemand P, Schiff-Wertheimer M: Oblitération de l’artère choroïdienne antérieure. Ramollissement de son territoire cérébral. Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr 1925;27:221–223.
52.
Foix C, Hillemand P: Les syndromes thalamiques. Presse Méd 1925;33:113–117.
53.
Foix C, Hillemand P, Schalit I: Irrigation du bulbe. C R Séances Soc Biol Fil 1925;2:33–35.
54.
Foix C, Hillemand P, Schalit I: Sur le syndrome latéral du bulbe et l’irrigation du bulbe supérieur. L’artère de la fossette latérale du bulbe. Rev Neurol (Paris) 1925;41:160–179.
55.
Foix C, Hillemand P, Ley J: Relativement au ramollissement, à sa fréquence et à son siège, et à l’importance relative des oblitérations artérielles, complètes ou incomplètes dans sa pathogénie. Rev Neurol (Paris) 1927;43:217–218.
56.
Karenberg A: Johann Jakob Wepfer (1620–1695). J Neurol 2004;251:501–502.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.