Background and Purpose: Before developing new medical facilities or adapting existing facilities in the field of stroke, it is desirable to assess not only the medical, but also the economic consequences of such facilities. Economic evaluation studies differ from other outcome studies in the way that costs are compared with effects. The purpose of this paper is to give an insight into economic evaluation studies in the field of stroke, so that these studies become easier for neurologists to understand and to apply. Summary of the Article: Crucial aspects in economic evaluation research are addressed successively, such as the techniques used and how the results can be influenced by the perspective of the study. The article also considers the inclusion of costs and consequences in economic evaluation research. At the end of this article, special issues in economic evaluation studies are presented such as discounting, sensitivity analysis, incremental analyses and ratios. Conclusions: Although neurologists have no direct responsibility for allocating scarce resources in the field of stroke, they are confronted with the results of these decisions in their everyday work. Because of this, it might be useful to have clear understanding of economic evaluation studies and their caveats.