Background: Male breast cancer is rare. No information was available on how male breast cancer patients (MBCPs) experience the health care they receive in Germany in a setting that is tailored to women. The aim of this study was to explore the health care situation of MBCPs from their perspectives. Methods: The study follows a mixed-methods design, combining quantitative data from a standardized written questionnaire with qualitative data from personal interviews. Descriptive statistics (quantitative data) and qualitative content analysis (qualitative data) were used for data analysis. Results: Questionnaires completed by 100 and personal interviews of 27 MBCPs were analyzed. Several men reported mainly positive experiences while others experienced shortcomings. These included delays in diagnosis, health care provider uncertainty about treatment (tamoxifen, radiation therapy), experiences of stigmatization, and issues of continuity of care including unclear responsibilities for aftercare and access challenges to breast-cancer-specific care in gynecology settings. Conclusions: The awareness of male breast cancer needs to be increased among the public, health care providers and researchers in order to avoid delays in diagnosis and reduce stigmatization and uncertainty about treatment. Health care structures ensuring access to gynecology care and clear responsibilities for aftercare need to be established.

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