As the kidney is the major site for elimination of many cytokines, the delicate equilibrium of pro-inflammatory cytokines and their inhibitors is clearly dysregulated in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The consequences of the altered immune response in uremia lead to a state of persistent inflammation which is highly prevalent among CKD patients and is linked to complications such as the development of protein-energy wasting and atherosclerotic vascular disease. The present review aims at reviewing this complex orchestration of uremic cytokines beyond the well-studied interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Finally, we update our current understanding on anti-inflammatory treatment strategies in CKD patients, including nutritional and lifestyle measurements, pharmacological intervention and specific anticytokine strategies targeting the dialytic procedure.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.