Apoptosis is a highly regulated process which mostly affects cell-mediated immunity. In this open-label, randomized, prospective clinical study, we determined the impact in 10 hemodialysis patients treated with high-, medium-, and low-flux membranes on spontaneous or plasma-induced apoptosis, on monocytes, as well as on oxidant and carbonyl stress. High- and medium-flux membranes significantly reduced patients’ plasma-dependent proapoptotic activity on U937 monocytic cell lines. Patients who had the highest levels of plasma-induced proapoptotic activity exhibited the highest plasma levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) and carbonyls. Plasma carbonyl residues but not AOPPs were significantly lowered. Finally, a significant correlation could be drawn between the extent of plasma-induced proapoptotic activity and both plasma carbonyl and AOPP levels.

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