Background: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease is on the rise. Our objective is to describe two programs to improve the awareness and management of hypertension, renal disease, and diabetes in remote Australian Aboriginal and urban and periurban South African communities. We focus on how the Australian Aboriginal and South African Chronic Disease Outreach Programs have worked together. Methods: The establishment of prevention programs in developing countries is a challenge. The paper evaluates these challenges, including accessing international aid. The programs advocate that regular integrated checks for chronic disease and their risk factors are essential elements of regular adult health care. Programs should be run by primary health workers, following algorithms for testing and treatment, and a backup provided by nurse coordinators. Constant evaluation is essential to develop community health profiles and adapt program structure. Results: Both programs are discussed, including how they are organized to deliver preventative and treatment strategies. The challenges and adaptations required are outlined. Conclusions: It is the aim of the international kidney commu- nity to prevent chronic kidney disease. The South African and Australian groups highlight the need for a systematic and sustained approach to the management of chronic diseases to achieve this goal.

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