Introduction: The present study aimed to monitor peritoneal neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (pNGAL) during peritonitis episodes and to enhance its diagnostic value by evaluating pNGAL at scheduled times in parallel with white blood cell (WBC) count. In addition, we investigated possible correlations between pNGAL and the etiology of peritonitis, evaluating it as a possible marker of the clinical outcome. Methods: Twenty-two patients with peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis were enrolled. Peritonitis was divided into Gram-positive, Gram-negative, polymicrobial, and sterile. WBC count and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in PD effluent were measured at different times (days 0, 1, 5, 10, 15, and/or 20 and 10 days after antibiotic therapy discontinuation). NGAL was measured by standard quantitative laboratory-based immunoassay and by colorimetric NGAL dipstick (NGALds) (dipstick test). Results: We found strong correlations between peritoneal WBC, laboratory-based NGAL, and NGALds values, both overall and separated at each time point. On day 1, we observed no significant difference in WBC, both NGALds (p = 0.3, 0.9, and 0.2) between Gram-positive, Gram-negative, polymicrobial, and sterile peritonitis. No significant difference has been found between de novo versus relapsing peritonitis for all markers (p > 0.05). We observed a parallel decrease of WBC and both NGAL in patients with favorable outcomes. WBC count and both pNGAL resulted higher in patients with negative outcomes (defined as relapsing peritonitis, peritonitis-associated catheter removal, peritonitis-associated hemodialysis transfer, peritonitis-associated death) at day 10 (p = 0.04, p = 0.03, and p = 0.05, respectively) and day 15 (p = 0.01, p = 0.04, and tendency for p = 0.005). There was a tendency toward higher levels of WBC and NGAL in patients with a negative outcome at day 5. No significant difference in all parameters was proven at day 1 (p = 0.3, p = 0.9, p = 0.2) between groups. Conclusion: This study confirms pNGAL as a valid and reliable biomarker for the diagnosis of PD-peritonitis and its monitoring. Its trend is parallel to WBC count during peritonitis episodes, in particular, patients with unfavorable outcomes.

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