Oxidative stress is prevalent in end-stage kidney disease patients receiving chronic hemodialysis and is associated with heavy cardiovascular disease burdens and increased mortality risks. Hemoincompatible hemodialysis membranes per se contribute to the activation of oxidative reactions and the generation of oxygen free radicals. Since the early 1990s, vitamin E-coated membranes have been extensively used in hemodialysis patients to reduce oxidative stress during hemodialysis sessions. However, the beneficial effects of vitamin E-coated membranes versus unmodified synthetic membranes on long-term patient-centered outcomes, such as survival, quality of life, and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, remain controversial. Accordingly, novel antioxidant hemodialysis membranes were prepared to replace the use of vitamin E-coated membranes despite the translational research on these membranes unfortunately coming to a standstill. In this review, we first summarize the state-of-the-art on the use of vitamin E-coated membranes in hemodialysis patients to highlight their strengths and limitations. Then, we discuss the latest advances in fabricating antioxidant hemodialysis membranes and provide perspectives to bridge knowledge gaps between laboratorial investigations and clinical practice in fabricating antioxidant hemodialysis membranes.