A two-step dose-ranging study was undertaken with CY216 (Fraxiparin®) in 8 patients on 7 sessions each. The different doses were administered each time as a single bolus injection at the start of hemodialysis without heparinized priming nor further administration during the 4-hour session. In the first step, the clinical efficacy of 4 different doses of Fraxiparin was compared with that of standard heparin on the percentage of sessions free of clot formation in the extracorporeal circulation (ECC). Safety was evaluated by the compression time for hemostasis at the puncture sites. The second step was a randomized comparison of 3 Fraxiparin dosages. In addition to the clinical assessment of efficacy, the following biological parameters were measured: fibrinopeptide A (FPA), anti-Xa (AXa) activity calibrated against Fraxiparin, thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time, blood counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma creatinine and urea, and residual blood volume in the dialyzer. A ‘standard’ dosage of 10,000 AXa Institut Choay units of Fraxiparin was shown to prevent clot formation in the ECC. It resulted in a marked increase in TT, without any lengthening of the puncture site compression time. After 4 h, AXa and FPA levels in the venous line were related to the doses used (p < 0.05). After 48 h AXa activity was very low. Dialysance and tolerance were excellent. Thus, a single dose of Fraxiparin unrelated to body weight and not determined by the measurement of the whole-blood activated clotting time appeared to be a safe and effective means for preventing fibrin formation in 4-hour dialysis sessions.