Introduction: Hemodialysis uses municipal water that must be strictly purified and sterilized to be used for that procedure. Large amounts of decontaminants are often used, such as chlorine, and if these compounds are not subsequently removed they can be transferred to the blood of patients causing complications including methemoglobinemia. Methods: In this case series study, dialysis patients in one unit were evaluated. We reviewed clinical characteristics and laboratory findings obtained on the day when the water supply was disinfected with chlorine, with the aim to quantify methemoglobin concentrations. Our objective was to characterize the clinical presentation and management of patients who presented with methemoglobinemia on a specific index day. We also reviewed reported cases in the literature regarding this underreported complication. Results: Eight patients who presented with chlorine intoxication were evaluated. The methemoglobin concentrations were between 1.3% and 7.9% (reference value 0–1%). We believe this to be caused by water containing 0.78 mg/L of total chlorine. Seven patients presented with cyanosis, 4 with dizziness, 6 with dark brown blood, 4 with dyspnea, and 4 with headache and hemolytic anemia. Subjects were treated with supplemental oxygen, methylene blue, intravenous vitamin C, blood transfusions, and increased doses of erythropoietin. No patient died, and all continued with their usual hemodialysis sessions. Conclusion: Acute chlorine intoxication transferred by the water used during hemodialysis sessions can present with methemoglobinemia accompanied by cyanosis, oxygen desaturation, and hemolytic anemia. Chlorine levels should be carefully monitored in the water used for hemodialysis treatment.

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