Background: Etelcalcetide is a novel second-generation calcimimetic that, because of its intravenous administration, could improve treatment adherence in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of etelcalcetide compared with that of cinacalcet in controlling SHPT in patients under hemodialysis. Methods: A prospective observational study was performed in 29 patients with SHPT under hemodialysis who switched from cinacalcet to etelcalcetide with a follow-up of 6 months. A survey was conducted of adherence to the oral calcimimetic. The primary end-point of the study was to assess whether etelcalcetide was more effective than cinacalcet in controlling SHPT. Results: After the switch of treatment, none of the patients developed clinical intolerance or new adverse effects. Etelcalcetide was more effective than cinacalcet in controlling intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), with an overall decrease in iPTH levels that was significant from the second month. Average calcium levels remained within the normal range, with a higher percentage of hypocalcemia with etelcalcetide (6.9 vs. 13.8%), which was asymptomatic in all cases. Patients who were nonadherent to cinacalcet (38%) showed a significant reduction in calcium and iPTH during follow-up with etelcalcetide. The adherent group (62%) also showed a trend to lower iPTH levels reaching statistical significance after 5 months of follow-up. The dose conversion factor for the switch from cinacalcet to etelcalcetide was etelcalcetide/session = 0.111*mg cinacalcet/day + 0.96, R2 = 0.57. Conclusions: Etelcalcetide was more effective than cinacalcet in this patient population, especially in the nonadherent subgroup, leading to better SHPT control without adverse effects.

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