Background/Aims: Polymyxin-B (PMX) treatment has been reported to decrease mortality in patients with septic shock and acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether extended sessions of PMX (Ext-PMX) immobilized fiber column hemoperfusion ameliorate clinical outcomes in patients complicated with septic shock and AKI without surgical control. Methods: Twenty-two patients with nonsurgical septic shock and AKI who received PMX were included. They were divided according to the duration of PMX treatment: Ext-PMX and standard PMX (Std-PMX). Results: The mean blood pressure increased and inotrope requirement decreased within 24 h after PMX initiation. The median value of predicted mortality was 52.5%, and the -28-day mortalities in the Ext-PMX and Std-PMX groups were 44.4 and 75% respectively. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was also initiated in 17 patients, and renal insufficiency was recovered. Conclusion: Ext-PMX combined with RRT improved clinical outcomes in patients with nonsurgical septic shock and AKI.

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