Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a very rare condition (1 case per 1 million people) with a dismal outcome due to inevitable coronary artery disease that occurs when left untreated. Lipoprotein apheresis (LA), previously known as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis, is very effective in reducing LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) if HoFH is refractory to aggressive drug therapy and diet control. In this study, we report a case with HoFH, who presented with xanthomata over the 4 limbs when she was 3 years old. When she was 11 years old, she began treatment with semi-selective LA with double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) once per week because HoFH was refractory to high-dose statin and diet control. LDL-C was reduced from 8.2 ± 0.9 to 2.69 ± 0.75 mmol/l (reduction rate = 67.3 ± 6.1%). The xanthomata over the 4 limbs were nearly completely resolved after 2 years of DFPP. Two years later, after the initiation of DFPP, we performed coronary angiography and echocardiography for regular checkup in the absence of chest pain, and the result was negative. To date (11 years after initiation of DFPP), she has not complained of any chest pain, shown intolerance to exercise, or exhibited ST-T change on electrocardiography. At the age of 20, multidetector computed tomography showed no significant stenosis over the coronary arteries. At the most recent follow-up visit, she was found to have good heart function and no xanthomata. LA is effective in the treatment of HoFH when drug therapy and diet control fail. With this treatment, pre-existing xanthomata can regress and coronary artery disease can be prevented.

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