Background: In a previous study on a nocturnal, every-other-day online haemodiafiltration scheme, different removal patterns were observed for urea, creatinine, β2-​microglobulin, myoglobin and prolactin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dialysis duration and infusion flow (Qi) on the removal of different molecular weight (MW) solutes, and to quantify the effect of the different treatments on the kinetics of the solutes by using a classical two-compartment model. Methods: This prospective, in-center study was carried out in 10 patients on a nocturnal, every-other-day online post-dilution haemodiafiltration program. Each patient received four dialysis sessions with different conditions, two 4-h sessions (with infusion flows of 50 or 100 ml/min) and two 8-h sessions (with infusion flows of 50 or 100 ml/min). To analyze the solute kinetics, blood samples were obtained hourly during the dialysis treatments and in the first 3 h post-dialysis. Results: Removal patterns differed in the molecules studied, which were quantified by means of the two-compartment mathematical model. The main results show the impact of dialysis duration on the removal of low molecular weight molecules (urea and creatinine), while the impact of Qi is clearly shown for high molecular weight molecules (myoglobin and prolactin). For middle molecular weight solutes, such as β2-microglobulin, both factors (duration and Qi) enhance the removal efficiency of the dialyzer. Conclusions: Our study evaluates experimentally and mathematically how treatment time and infusion flow affect the filtration of solutes of different MW during post-dilution haemodiafiltration. The results provided by the present study should help physicians to select and individualise the most appropriate schedules to deliver an optimum diffusive and convective dialysis dose for each patient.

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