Background: Mediterranean-style diet has been considered for its important beneficial effects on the progression of CV disease. Wine is an important component of the Mediterranean diet, and moderate wine drinkers have lower mortality rates than nondrinkers and heavy drinkers in epidemiologic studies. The beneficial effects of red wine are thought to be dependent on the polyphenol compounds such as resveratrol that exhibit potent antioxidant activity. However, white wine, although lacking polyphenols, contains simple phenols, such as tyrosol (Tyr) and hydroxytyrosol (OH-Tyr), characteristic also of extra-virgin olive oil, which may share similar antioxidant and inflammatory properties. Patients and Methods: The effect of white wine and extra-virgin olive oil on inflammatory markers was evaluated in 10 healthy volunteers and in 10 patients with CKD (chronic kidney disease) K-DOQI stage III- IV in a prospective, single blind, randomized, cross-over trial. After two weeks of wash-out from alcoholic beverages, subjects were randomized to a cross-over design A-B or B-A of a 2-week treatment with white wine (4 ml/kg body weight, 0.48 g/kg of alcohol 12%, corresponding to 2-3 glasses/daily) and extra-virgin olive oil (treatment A) or extra-virgin olive oil alone (treatment B). The two study periods were separated by a two-week wash-out period. At baseline and at the end of each treatment, plasma levels of inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentration were determined. Urinary levels of Tyr, OH-Tyr, and their metabolites were measured at the same time. Results: During combined consumption of white wine and extra-virgin olive oil (treatment A), plasma levels of CRP and IL-6 decreased from 4.1 ± 1.8 to 2.4 ± 1.9 mg/l (p < 0.05) and from 5.3 ± 3.2 to 3.4 ± 2.3 mg/l (p < 0.05) in CKD patients. CRP decreased from 2.6 ± 1.2 to 1.9 ± 0.9 mg/l (p < 0.05), and IL-6 decreased from 2.2 ± 1.8 to 1.7 ± 1.3 mg/l (p = ns) in healthy volunteers. No significant variation versus baseline was observed during treatment B. A significant increase in urinary Tyr and OH-Tyr was observed during treatment A (white wine and extra-virgin olive oil). Conclusions: Plasma markers of chronic inflammation were significantly reduced in CKD patients during the combined consumption of white wine and olive oil, suggesting a possible anti-inflammatory effect of this nutritional intervention.