This case report describes polymyxin B-immobilized fiber (PMX-F) treatment of septic shock caused by pyelonephritis in a 68-year-old woman with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. She was admitted for severe lower left abdominal pain, high fever (40°C) and gross hematuria. Her endotoxin and high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) levels were extremely elevated. Her blood pressure was 68/36 mm Hg. Urinalysis revealed innumerable white blood cells (WBCs). Blood and urine cultures were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Plain abdominal radiography showed large kidney shadows and calcium deposition. Septic shock with endotoxemia was diagnosed. Her symptoms of septic shock persisted for 3 days with antibiotics, γ-globulin and dopamine. Direct hemoperfusion was performed twice with a PMX-F column. The patient’s body temperature, WBC count and C-reactive protein level decreased. Her blood endotoxin level and blood HMGB1 level also decreased to an almost normal level. She was discharged on day 23 after admission.

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