Background/Aims: Few data are available on the impact of residual renal function (RRF) on mortality and hospitalization in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The objective of our study was to compare clinical outcomes for HD patients with and without RRF. Methods: In a cohort of 118 incident HD patients with RRF (n = 51) and without RRF (n = 67) who started dialysis in a single center, we recorded demographics, laboratory data, medication, hospitalizations and mortality. Results: Patients without RRF were older (p = 0.007), had lower baseline serum albumin levels (p = 0.002) and spent 18.6 more days in hospital per year than those with RRF (p = 0.055). Mean survival time was significantly lower in patients without RRF (p = 0.027). In a Cox proportional hazards model, only RRF remained as a significant independent predictor. Conclusions: RRF is associated with significantly reduced mortality and hospital days, but does not decrease the hospitalization rate and time to first hospitalization.

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