Aim: To evaluate the effects of short-term restriction of dietary protein intake (DPI) supplemented with keto acids on hyperphosphatemia in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Methods: Forty MHD patients with uncontrolled hyperphosphatemia were randomized to either low DPI with keto acid-supplemented (sLP) or normal DPI (NP) group for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, the sLP group was shifted to NP for another 8 weeks. Low-protein diet (LPD) was individualized with total caloric intake 30–35 kcal/kg/day, protein intake of 0.8 g/kg/day and phosphate intake of 500 mg/day. Keto acids were supplied in a dosage of 12 pills per day. Calcium phosphorous metabolism index and nutritional index (serum albumin, total protein, somatometric measurements, 3-day diaries and Mini-Nutritional Assessment score) were recorded. C-reactive protein, CO2 combining power and Kt/V were measured to evaluate the inflammation, metabolic acidosis and dialysis adequacy, respectively. Results: Serum phosphorus level and calcium-phosphate product were significantly decreased at the end of the first 8 weeks in the sLP group compared to the basal value and the NP group (p < 0.001). No difference was observed in C-reactive protein, Kt/V and nutritional index, while CO2 combining power was significantly higher at week 8 in the sLP group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Short-term restriction of DPI supplemented with keto acids could decrease hyperphosphatemia and calcium-phosphate product, while keeping stable nutritional status among MHD patients.

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