Background/Aims: A dialyzer (APS-EX) with a higher hollow fiber density ratio was manufactured using the highest performance polysulfone hollow fiber from Asahi-Kasei Medical. Methods: We compared the performance of this device in comparison with hemodialysis (HD; APS-S) and hemodiafiltration (HDF) conditions (APS-S, 10 l post-HDF) to evaluate its merit as an internal filtration-enhanced dialyzer. Results: With low molecular weight proteins, APS-EX had a reduction ratio of 74.3% for β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), and 31.0% for α1-MG. APS-EX had a significant higher removal amount of α1-MG compared to APS-S (HDF). Significant differences were seen in albumin loss, 4.0 g for APS-EX, 3.0 g for APS-S (HDF), and 0.9 g for APS-S (HD). Using HD mode, APS-EX demonstrated a performance which was more than equivalent to approximately 10 l post-HDF. Conclusions: The results suggested the possibility that HD equivalent to HDF can be performed safely with the ultrapure dialysate when using APS-EX with internal filtration.

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