Chronic renal failure is associated with increased oxidative and carbonyl stresses that contribute to long-term uremic complications. In our study, we determined two markers of these stresses – AGEs (advanced glycation end products) and AOPP (advanced oxidation protein products) in chronic hemodialysis patients in order to find out their relationship to the dialysis treatment. Plasmas of 20 hemodialyzed patients treated with modified cellulose membranes were examined at 0 and 15 min and at the end (i.e. after 4 h) of the dialysis session. AGEs were estimated using a spectrofluorometric method (excitation 350 nm, emission 440 nm) and are expressed in AU (arbitrary units)/g protein. AOPP were determined spectrophotometrically (absorbance at 340 nm) and are expressed in chloramine units per gram of protein (µmol/g). AOPP decrease slightly from 0 to 15 min of the dialysis procedure (4.0 ± 1.5 vs. 3.0 ± 0.9 µmol/g, p < 0.01). However, they are increased at the end of the session (5.0 ± 2.1 µmol/l vs. 15 min, p < 0.01, not significant vs. beginning). On the other hand, AGEs decrease continuously from the beginning to the end of the session (mainly in the first minutes of the dialysis) (1.52 ± 0.34 × 104 AU/g at 0 min, 1.39 ± 0.33 × 104 AU/g at 15 min, p < 0.001 vs. beginning, 1.30 ± 0.33 × 104 AU/g at the end, p < 0.001 vs. beginning, not significant vs. 15 min). Neither AGEs nor AOPP correlate with the age of hemodialyzed patients and with the number of years of the dialysis treatment. AOPP correlate with AGEs before the dialysis session (r = 0.62, p < 0.05) but not after the session (r = 0.29, not significant). According to our results, AGEs may serve more as a marker of chronic damage while AOPP may better describe acute oxidative stress during the dialysis treatment.