Bacteria attach to surfaces and aggregate in a biopolymer matrix to form biofilm. Studies on biofilm have shown its presence in many prosthetic devices used in nephrology as well as in fluid pathways of hemodialysis plants and monitors. Once present, this community of bacteria increases resistance to biocide due to slime production and, as a result, chemical products for dialysis monitor disinfection and descaling procedures do not result in an effective treatment. Ultrapure dialysate is a goal in modern hemodialysis, and ultrafiltration is used to obtain sterile and apyrogen fluids. Microbial colonisation of ultrafilters may occur if, due to inadequate disinfection protocols, membrane is exposed to persistent bacterial contamination, and biofilm is allowed to form and to grow. As more and more data link final dialysate microbial contamination to clinical effects of bioincompatibility from chronic inflammation in dialysis patients, attention has to be focused on possibilities of biofilm avoidance.

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