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warfare

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Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481471
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
... and pathogenicity of current and historical lineages of TB. In marked contrast to the 70,000 years that TB has been causing disease and death, warfare is practically brand new. No one knows exactly when wars originated, but it was certainly long before recorded history could keep track of them. A reasonable...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 30
Published: 30 May 2002
10.1159/000060682
EISBN: 978-3-318-00771-8
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 38
Published: 04 April 2016
10.1159/000442650
EISBN: 978-3-318-05606-8
... strengthened military operations through an active process of ‘recycling' indispensable army personnel. Neurosurgical emergency chains thereby introduced another decisive step in the modernization of warfare, in that they increased the momentum of military mobility in the field. Notwithstanding the violence...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 38
Published: 04 April 2016
10.1159/000442658
EISBN: 978-3-318-05606-8
... Abstract The modern era of chemical and biological warfare began in World War I with the large-scale production and use of blistering and choking agents (chlorine, phosgene and mustard gases) in the battlefield. International treaties (the 1925 Geneva Protocol, the 1975 Biological and Toxin...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481474
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
..., forced to undergo sterilization, and eventually euthanized in the so-called “mercy-killings.” Once the war began, the Nazis used TB as a form of biological warfare. Nazi doctors euthanized TB sufferers throughout Germany and the eastern occupied lands or used TB as a convenient excuse to kill those...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481490
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
... Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most frequent and most dangerous diseases that further complicate the special circumstances of warfare. TB was also the major health disaster of World War II (WWII). Environmental and host-dependent risk factors - usually both combined - contributed...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 38
Published: 04 April 2016
10.1159/000442562
EISBN: 978-3-318-05606-8
... Abstract Here, we chronicle the evolution of warfare from antiquity to modern times (18th century) and its impact on the later-to-be-defined field of neurology, especially with regard to brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve injuries and neurological disorders caused by biological weapons...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 38
Published: 04 April 2016
EISBN: 978-3-318-05606-8
...References References 1. Fitzgerald GJ: Chemical warfare and medical response during World War I. Am J Public Health 2008;98:611-625. 2. Williams P, Wallace D: Unit 731; Japan's Secret Biological Warfare in World War II. New York, Free Press, 1989. 3. Harris S: Factories of Death...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
Volume: 25
Published: 26 July 2006
10.1159/000095369
EISBN: 978-3-318-01402-0
... potential causes continues and has included oil well smoke, contagious infections, exposure to chemical and biological warfare agents, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Historical analyses completed since the Gulf War have found that postwar syndromes consisting of chronic pain, fatigue, depression...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
...). www.biography.com/people/genghiskhan-9308634#the-universal-ruler. 65. Fry DP, Soderberg P: Lethal aggression in mobile forager bands and implications for the origins of war. Science 2013;341:270-273. 66. Allen MW, Jones TL (eds): Violence and Warfare Among Hunter-Gatherers. New York, Routledge, 2014. 67...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 38
Published: 04 April 2016
EISBN: 978-3-318-05606-8
... Med Corps 1917;28:66-77. 18. Collins J, Craig CB: Injuries to the spinal cord produced by modern warfare; in Spiller WG (ed): Transactions of the American Neurological Association. New York, Springer Publishing Co., 1917, p 268. 19. Head H, Riddoch G: The automatic bladder, excessive sweating...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481487
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
.... 1 ). Note that during WWI, most European countries experienced a striking rise in TB mortality but Japan was not affected. The Japanese economy benefitted during that conflict through market expansion and remained almost untouched by warfare [ 4 ]. It is possible that some of this increase in TB...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 38
Published: 04 April 2016
EISBN: 978-3-318-05606-8
... warfare. Mil Surg 1916;38:601-615. 14. Hanigan WC: Surgery of the head and 70-day brain surgeons. Neurosurgery 2003;53:713-722. 15. Guttmann L: Spinal Cord Injuries: Comprehensive Management and Research, ed 2. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific, 1976. 16. Rusk HA: A World to Care...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 38
Published: 04 April 2016
EISBN: 978-3-318-05606-8
... of biological warfare and bioterrorism. Clin Microbiol Infect 2014;20:497-502. 29. Grmek MD: Les ruses de guerre dans l'Antiquite. Rev Etud Grec 1979;92:141-163. 30. Crocq MA, Crocq L: From shell shock and war neurosis to posttraumatic stress disorder: a history of psychotraumatology. Dialogues Clin...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481484
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
... in towns. Most hospitals, sanatoriums, and TB clinics fell victim to the ravages of war. While the number of TB clinics had increased to 141 by 1941, as a result of bombardment and local warfare, the number of operating clinics dropped to 34 by 1945. Moreover, the number of hospital beds declined from...
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-06095-9
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 38
Published: 04 April 2016
10.1159/000442566
EISBN: 978-3-318-05606-8
... highlight the trend away from state-based warfare that dominated 20th century conflicts towards asymmetrical hostilities between traditional sovereign states and smaller groups often embedded within civilian populations. While guerrilla tactics themselves have been used for centuries, modern insurgent...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481488
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
... facilities were extremely slow. Even though the mortality rate from TB of the Japanese people living in Korea during periods of warfare continued to increase, they were not able to create effective countermeasures. While the extermination of TB was considered a critical factor in the construction of a modern...
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 38
Published: 04 April 2016
10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-05606-8
EISBN: 978-3-318-05606-8
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481489
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
...): “the longest continuous march in the history of warfare” [ 8 ]. Mao became the exalted leader of the CCP: the position he attained and presided over until his death in 1976. The Long March became far more than a myth of heroism and fortitude, its reality attracted thousands of young Chinese students, workers...