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Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 38
Published: 04 April 2016
10.1159/000442567
EISBN: 978-3-318-05606-8
... Abstract As a result of the wars in the early 20th century, elaboration of the visual pathways was greatly facilitated by the meticulous study of visual defects in soldiers who had suffered focal injuries to the visual cortex. Using relatively crude techniques, often under difficult wartime...
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-06095-9
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481490
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
... Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most frequent and most dangerous diseases that further complicate the special circumstances of warfare. TB was also the major health disaster of World War II (WWII). Environmental and host-dependent risk factors - usually both combined - contributed...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 38
Published: 04 April 2016
10.1159/000442653
EISBN: 978-3-318-05606-8
... Abstract Between 1914 and 1918, war strain appeared under a number of guises and affected, to varying extents, the majority of French soldiers. The most frequent form of war strain was war psychoneurosis, but war strain also induced more paroxystic disorders, such as acute episodes of terror...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 35
Published: 23 June 2014
10.1159/000360060
EISBN: 978-3-318-02647-4
... Abstract During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
Volume: 25
Published: 26 July 2006
10.1159/000095369
EISBN: 978-3-318-01402-0
... Abstract In the 1991 Gulf War less than 150 of nearly 700,000 deployed US troops were killed in action. Today, however, over 1 in 7 US veterans of the war has sought federal healthcare for related-health concerns, and fully 17% of UK Gulf War veterans describe themselves as suffering...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 43
Published: 16 October 2018
10.1159/000490401
EISBN: 978-3-318-06394-3
... Abstract The writer Louis Ferdinand Céline (1894-1961) developed a personal style which changed twentieth century French literature. As an enlisted soldier in 1912, he was involved in the Great War and his right arm was severely wounded. After the war, he became a medical doctor and a writer...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 43
Published: 16 October 2018
10.1159/000490403
EISBN: 978-3-318-06394-3
... Abstract Many artists were involved in the First World War. Some of them were mobilized, like millions of soldiers, others enlisted to fight on the battlefield. The stories of writers who returned neurologically wounded from the war, such as Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) or Blaise Cendrars...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 43
Published: 16 October 2018
10.1159/000490404
EISBN: 978-3-318-06394-3
... Abstract The issue of First World War shell shock has been documented mainly from a medical perspective. Many medical texts dealing with war psychoneuroses and their aggressive treatments, such as electrotherapy, were published during the war. Accounts from shell-shocked soldiers are rare...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481475
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
... Abstract In 1939, the year Germany started World War II, tuberculosis (TB) mortality was at its lowest, only a few countries had lower TB mortality rates. When the Nazis came into power in 1933, they took over under the main health-related motto “Public interest ahead of self-interest...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481476
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
... Abstract The tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in Austria followed a similar pattern to that in major European countries, but evolved a century later than in London. In 1871, the TB death rate in Vienna was 910/100,000. Before World War II (WWII), poor living conditions were ubiquitous throughout...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481477
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
... Abstract This chapter presents the mortality rates and the evolution of the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in the Polish territories during the Second World War, mainly those occupied by the Germans. The Germans divided the occupied Polish territories into 2 parts, the Reichsgau Wartheland...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481478
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
... Abstract The United Kingdom (UK) and Ireland had very different roles in World War II (WWII). The UK was engaged in continuous conflict from September 1939 until August 1945. In contrast, Ireland remained neutral throughout the war. Both countries saw an increase in tuberculosis (TB) deaths...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481479
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
... Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) was highly endemic in France at the beginning of the 20th century, with a TB death rate of 250/100,000 at the end of World War I (WWI). TB control progressed considerably between WWI and WWII. Due to a great political involvement, implicating all the different layers...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481480
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
... World War II (WWII) began on 1 September 1939 when Nazi Germany invaded Poland. On 3 September 1939, after a United Kingdom ultimatum directing the Nazis to withdraw their troops was ignored, the United Kingdom declared war against Germany at 11:00 a.m., and then its collaborating partner...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481593
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
... Abstract Australia's history of tuberculosis (TB) before World War II (WWII) was similar to that of many western nations: the overall mortality rate began its decline late in the 19th century. In addition, mortality rates were generally lower than most other nations. Before the late 1940s...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481595
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
... Abstract Unlike many countries where the trends in tuberculosis (TB) before and after World War II (WWII) can be assumed to be mainly a result of the war, in South Africa there were extreme political and economic changes before, during, and after WWII, making it impossible to separate...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481481
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
... Abstract For The Netherlands, World War II started on May 10, 1940 and ended on May 6, 1945. Mortality from tuberculosis (TB) had shown a gradual pre-war decline of around 7% annually, reaching a nadir of 41/100,000 population in 1939, then worsened throughout the war. Chief factors were...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481482
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
... Abstract World War II (WWII) began on September 1, 1939, when the Nazi German army invaded Poland and progressed relentlessly towards Warsaw. After silence from Germany, the United Kingdom, France, and several members of the British Empire declared war on September 3, 1939. Belgium's...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 43
Published: 10 April 2018
10.1159/000481483
EISBN: 978-3-318-06095-9
... Abstract As observed throughout, virtually all of Europe, the burden of tuberculosis (TB) in Southern Europe and the Balkan region was significantly influenced by World War I (WWI) and World War II (WWII) during the first half of the 20th century. The already precarious socioeconomic and living...