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Book Chapter
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 147
Published: 07 December 2004
10.1159/000082545
EISBN: 978-3-318-01169-2
..., urate oxidase promptlyreduces the existing uric acid pool, prevents accumulation of xanthine and hypoxanthine,and does not require alkalinization, facilitating phosphorus excretion. A recombinant formof urate oxidase, rasburicase, is now available. In this chapter we will present an overview...
Book Chapter
Book Chapter
Book Chapter
Book Chapter
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 192
Published: 08 February 2018
10.1159/000484271
EISBN: 978-3-318-06251-9
... disorder, which increases or diminishes urate excretion. Introduction Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound (2,6,8-trihydroxypurine [C 5 H 4 N 4 O 3 ]) and its diprotic acid characteristics include 2 dissociable protons with pKa 1 ≈5.4 and pKa 2 ≈10.3. At physiological human pH, the breakdown...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 192
Published: 08 February 2018
EISBN: 978-3-318-06251-9
... influences uric acid concentrations with pronounced sex-specific effects. Nat Genet 2008;40:430-436. 4. Maesaka JK, Fishbane S: Regulation of renal urate excretion: a critical review. Am J Kidney Dis 1998;32:917-933. 5. Ichida K, Matsuo H, Takada T, et al: Decreased extra-renal urate excretion...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 147
Published: 07 December 2004
10.1159/000082551
EISBN: 978-3-318-01169-2
... Abstract Uric acid, a weak organic acid, has very low pH-dependent solubility in aqueous solutions.About 70% of urate elimination occurs in urine, the kidney standing as a major determinantof plasma levels. The complex renal handling results in a fractional clearance of lessthan 10%. Recently...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 192
Published: 08 February 2018
10.1159/000484286
EISBN: 978-3-318-06251-9
.... Studies have revealed that there could be an insufficient production of urinary ammonium buffer. Many transport proteins are candidate participants in urate handling, with URAT1 and GLUT9 being the best characterized to date. Because low urine pH is the most important pathogenic factor of UA stone...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 192
Published: 08 February 2018
10.1159/000484273
EISBN: 978-3-318-06251-9
... Messages: Experimental studies performed in animals have limitations due to the differences that exist between humans and other mammals in purine metabolism and in renal uric acid handling. Additional experimental studies aimed at evaluating the effects of lowering urate levels on the courses...
Book Chapter
Published: 17 August 2012
10.1159/000336433
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9930-6
... Abstract Gout is a common form of arthritis caused by the deposition of proinflammatory monosodium urate crystals in the setting of chronic hyperuricemia (serum urate concentration >7 mg/dl, or 0.42 m<smlcap>m</smlcap>). The risks of becoming hyperuricemic and developing gout...
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 147
Published: 07 December 2004
10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-01169-2
EISBN: 978-3-318-01169-2
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 192
Published: 08 February 2018
10.1159/000484281
EISBN: 978-3-318-06251-9
... elevation of serum uric acid levels above the saturation point for monosodium urate crystal formation. Its incidence is progressively rising even today, but there are also regional and ethnic variations. Finally, the role of genetics is only beginning to be unraveled. Historical Perspective Gout has...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 192
Published: 08 February 2018
EISBN: 978-3-318-06251-9
...) ameliorates the long-term progression of renal disease. QJM 2002;95:597-607. 5. Wu X, et al: Hyperuricemia and urate nephropathy in urate oxidase-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1994;91:742-746. 6. Mazzali M, et al: Elevated uric acid increases blood pressure in the rat by a novel crystal...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 192
Published: 08 February 2018
10.1159/000484279
EISBN: 978-3-318-06251-9
... the conclusion that urate-lowering therapy with allopurinol retards the progression of CKD. The target level of serum UA if treated is another issue of debate. Our recent analysis by propensity score analysis has shown that the serum UA should be targeted below 6.0 mg/dL to inhibit the progression towards end...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 192
Published: 08 February 2018
10.1159/000484280
EISBN: 978-3-318-06251-9
... Abstract Background: Uric acid (UA) is still considered a risk factor, or even a causative agent, for chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, a few, important, clinical questions remain unanswered; in particular: when and whether urate-lowering therapy should be commenced in subjects...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 192
Published: 08 February 2018
EISBN: 978-3-318-06251-9
...References References 1. McCarty DJ, Hollander JL: Identification of urate crystals in gouty synovial fluid. Ann Intern Med 1961;54:452-460. 2. Johnson RJ, Titte S, Cade JR, Rideout BA, Oliver WJ: Uric acid, evolution and primitive cultures. Semin Nephrol 2005;25:3-8. 3. Zhu Y, Pandya...
Book
Book Cover Image
Published: 23 April 2002
10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-00811-1
EISBN: 978-3-318-00811-1
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 192
Published: 08 February 2018
10.1159/000484288
EISBN: 978-3-318-06251-9
... such as exercise, weight reduction, low consumption of purine-rich meat, or avoiding high fructose intake are recommended for all hyperuricemic patients. Lowering urate drugs such as allopurinol or febuxostat may be an option as a renoprotective agent; yet, randomized clinical trials evaluating the safety...