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Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research
Volume: 34
Published: 09 July 2015
10.1159/000381386
EISBN: 978-3-318-05474-3
.... It is a complex system composed of very morphologically disparate components, including (i) the mucus layer, (ii) antimicrobial peptides, (iii) a paracellular epithelial cell barrier, and (iv) a transcellular epithelial cell barrier, which synergize to perform a barrier function. The proinflammatory cytokine TNF...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research
Volume: 34
Published: 09 July 2015
10.1159/000381409
EISBN: 978-3-318-05474-3
... and tightly controlled. TNF plays a crucial role in the regulation of innate immune responses. By inducing its signaling cascades, TNF activates a number of molecular mechanisms that have been clearly associated with the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation. TNF orchestrates the secretion...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research
Volume: 34
Published: 09 July 2015
10.1159/000381597
EISBN: 978-3-318-05474-3
... Abstract The introduction of anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies to the therapeutic arsenal has represented a major advance in the management of Crohn's disease (CD). Anti-TNF agents are able to induce and maintain remission of the disease over time. These treatments also have the ability to close...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research
Volume: 34
Published: 09 July 2015
10.1159/000381601
EISBN: 978-3-318-05474-3
... Abstract Recently, the efficacy of anti-TNF agents in refractory UC patients has been reported. Promising results of large scale clinical trials encourage us. while we also have unsolved issues in daily practice such as how to evaluate mucosal healing, long-term prognosis of patients treated...
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Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research
Volume: 34
Published: 09 July 2015
10.1159/000381381
EISBN: 978-3-318-05474-3
... to contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. In this review, we discuss the role of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) in regulating multiple aspects of intestinal Mϕ and DC physiology, including their differentiation, migration, maturation, survival and effector functions. In inflammatory bowel...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research
Volume: 34
Published: 09 July 2015
10.1159/000381382
EISBN: 978-3-318-05474-3
... lymphocytes remain tightly controlled. TNF, which is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by many cell types upon different stimuli under various physiological and pathological conditions, plays a key role in the maturation, proliferation, differentiation and survival of T-lymphocytes. A large number of studies...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research
Volume: 34
Published: 09 July 2015
10.1159/000381410
EISBN: 978-3-318-05474-3
...-Inflammatory Effect of Anti-TNF Therapy As discussed in other chapters in this book, the induction of apoptosis in T cells [ 1 ] as well as in peripheral blood monocytes [ 2 ] has been considered as the central mechanism mediating the anti-inflammatory effect observed in inflammatory bowel diseases...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research
Volume: 34
Published: 09 July 2015
10.1159/000381411
EISBN: 978-3-318-05474-3
... Abstract The efficacy of anti-TNF antibodies in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has been attributed to multiple effects, but the precise molecular mechanism of action has still not been thoroughly characterized. It has been shown that the available anti-TNF agents are able to block soluble...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research
Volume: 34
Published: 09 July 2015
10.1159/000381447
EISBN: 978-3-318-05474-3
... Abstract As the current treatment algorithms for patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease have become more aggressive, often involving anti-TNF therapy, with the aim of reaching deep remission rather than just clinical improvement, the risk of relevant complications has increased...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research
Volume: 34
Published: 09 July 2015
10.1159/000381578
EISBN: 978-3-318-05474-3
... Abstract Inter-individual differences in responses and remission rates have been observed in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases treated with TNF antagonists. These differences, together with the risk of loss of response in patients initially responding to treatment, have led researchers...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research
Volume: 34
Published: 09 July 2015
10.1159/000381593
EISBN: 978-3-318-05474-3
... Abstract Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNF) therapy has been demonstrated to be efficacious in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. The use of anti-TNF agents has therefore increased over the past decade. While anti-TNF therapy is associated with significant benefits...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research
Volume: 34
Published: 09 July 2015
10.1159/000381596
EISBN: 978-3-318-05474-3
... Abstract Anti-TNF therapy is the current standard of care for moderate to severe Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. However, despite advancements in immunosuppressive therapy, many patients will require surgery during their disease course. Patients are often exposed to immunosuppressive...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research
Volume: 34
Published: 09 July 2015
10.1159/000381606
EISBN: 978-3-318-05474-3
... of postoperative prevention trials followed, involving the evaluation of medications, such as 5-aminosalicylates, antibiotics, and thiopurine analogs. In the past decade, there have been a number of postoperative prevention studies investigating anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) drugs. The type of patient who would...