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Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 122
Published: 03 September 2021
10.1159/000514737
EISBN: 978-3-318-06647-0
... such as fecal transplants, inactivated microbes, and use of targeted microbial ecotypes. Human Milk Human milk is considered the ideal source of nutrition for most neonates. Unfortunately, not all mothers can safely produce milk. Research efforts are being focused on formula or banked donor milk that can...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Tumor Research
Volume: 44
Published: 07 May 2018
10.1159/000486987
EISBN: 978-3-318-06362-2
... Abstract Target volume definition is of obvious importance in successful radiotherapy. Single-energy CT scans remain the standard, but FDG-PET-CT scans aid the determination of which lymph nodes should be included in the gross tumor volume and to fine-tune areas of cancer involvement. FDG-PET...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 192
Published: 08 February 2018
10.1159/000484279
EISBN: 978-3-318-06251-9
... the conclusion that urate-lowering therapy with allopurinol retards the progression of CKD. The target level of serum UA if treated is another issue of debate. Our recent analysis by propensity score analysis has shown that the serum UA should be targeted below 6.0 mg/dL to inhibit the progression towards end...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 189
Published: 22 December 2016
10.1159/000450634
EISBN: 978-3-318-05929-8
... (HR = 0.95; n.s.) as well as cardiovascular events (fatal and nonfatal) (HR = 1.07; n.s.) were not affected by treatment modality. While the target convection volume was set at 24 liters/treatment, the mean volume achieved was 20.7 liters/session and only one third of the centers were within...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 189
Published: 22 December 2016
10.1159/000450776
EISBN: 978-3-318-05929-8
... with an arrested cell cycle and decreased expression of Klotho protein. Because cell cycle arrest has a protective effect on organs in the acute phase, the proposed therapeutic target against the aging process is to maintain expression of Klotho protein. In addition, it is recognized that TGF-β 1 plays a central...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume: 39
Published: 03 August 2016
10.1159/000445452
EISBN: 978-3-318-05865-9
... incorporated in AD and PD clinical trials to demonstrate target engagement of the drug and/or to enrich the patient populations. In this chapter, we will review the main CSF biomarkers for AD and PD and their potential application to clinical trials. Summary: In clinical trials assessing the efficacy...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 44
Published: 11 August 2015
10.1159/000403593
EISBN: 978-3-318-02773-0
... target for treatment and diagnosis. One of the most well-known target receptors in NETs are somatostatin receptors. On the basis of the expression of functional somatostatin receptors on the cell surface of NET cells, somatostatin analogs have already been used for decades to control symptoms related...
Book Chapter
Series: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
Volume: 40
Published: 09 October 2014
10.1159/000364982
EISBN: 978-3-318-02730-3
.../tissue and systemic/organismal. There is a significant similarity in the majority of effects of these two groups of drugs and in the main patterns of their activities as antiaging and anticarcinogenic remedies. It means that the key targets as well as signaling pathways and regulatory signals are also...
Book Chapter
Series: Chemical Immunology and Allergy
Volume: 99
Published: 21 October 2013
10.1159/000353316
EISBN: 978-3-318-02481-4
... [ 45 ] with their invasiveness. Moreover, we have shown that VEGF-A released by thyroid tumor cells is chemoattractant for mast cells, indicating that mast cells are a target, in addition to a source, for VEGF. We also characterized how mast cells can be activated by tumor thyroid cells to release...
Book Chapter
Series: Chemical Immunology and Allergy
Volume: 99
Published: 21 October 2013
10.1159/000353254
EISBN: 978-3-318-02481-4
... and functions by targeting different vascular cell populations and distinct processes. For example, leptin as an adipokine, is a multifunctional hormone, which directly modulates endothelial cell growth and vascular fenestrations in the adipose tissues [ 20 , 21 ]. Furthermore, leptin coordinates with other...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 28
Published: 27 February 2013
10.1159/000343971
EISBN: 978-3-318-02311-4
... in a variety of disorders, not just relating to irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease, but also involvement in mood disorders. In this review we will explore the impact of stress on the brain-gut axis and the possibility of targeting the axis for the treatment of stress related disorders...
Book Chapter
Series: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
Volume: 38
Published: 18 January 2013
10.1159/000343625
EISBN: 978-3-318-02307-7
... feasible for use in the clinic. We review the current understanding of the role of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in cancer and aging. We also discuss the tumor immune surveillance system, and the need for a better understanding of its responses to mTOR inhibitors. We also address the issue...
Book Chapter
Series: Endocrine Development
Volume: 20
Published: 17 December 2010
10.1159/000321232
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9644-2
... the strong influence of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian CLOCK system, and regulate the transcriptional activity of the GR in the brain and peripheral target tissues. We recently reported that the basic helix-loop- helix transcription factor Clock, which is a histone acetyltransferase...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Respiratory Research
Volume: 39
Published: 31 August 2010
10.1159/000320801
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9567-4
...The target Pathogen-associated molecular pattern agonists (ligands) Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) senses pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in bacteria and fungi. In general terms, TLR2 functions predominately as a receptor for Gram-positive bacteria while TLR4 functions...
Book Chapter
Series: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
Volume: 37
Published: 12 August 2010
10.1159/000319998
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9522-3
... pathways controlling protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, specifically on one of the downstream effectors of the kinase Akt/PKB, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase which is now recognized as a key regulator of cell growth and a pivotal sensor of nutritional status over the lifespan...
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Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Radiation Therapy and Oncology
Volume: 40
Published: 26 June 2007
10.1159/000106029
EISBN: 978-3-318-01415-0
... Abstract Highly conformal radiation therapy tailors treatment to match the target shape and position, minimizing normal tissue damage to a greater extent than previously possible. Technological advances such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, introduced a decade ago, have yielded...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Radiation Therapy and Oncology
Volume: 40
Published: 26 June 2007
10.1159/000106037
EISBN: 978-3-318-01415-0
.... Several studies have suggested that IMRT is superior to conventional radiation therapy in salivary preservation and holds promise for improved locoregional control of these tumors. Target delineation for IMRT in these tumors is complex and requires detailed knowledge of head and neck anatomy and pathways...
Book Chapter