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Book Chapter
Series: ESASO Course Series
Volume: 7
Published: 06 April 2016
10.1159/000442225
EISBN: 978-3-318-05619-8
... Abstract The majority of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) tumors are considered to be congenital and benign. They are classified as either congenital hypertrophy of the RPE (CHRPE) or RPE hamartoma. CHRPE most frequently presents as an isolated, flat, darkly pigmented and well-delineated fundus...
Book Chapter
Series: ESASO Course Series
Volume: 11
Published: 28 December 2020
10.1159/000504923
EISBN: 978-3-318-06643-2
... as an intraretinal vascular proliferation from the retinal deep capillary plexus (DCP) with initially no visible connection to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and sub-RPE space or the choroid. In particular, the presence of hyper-reflective foci (HRF) detected on structural OCT has been considered as precursors...
Book Chapter
Series: Developments in Ophthalmology
Volume: 53
Published: 22 April 2014
10.1159/000358531
EISBN: 978-3-318-02585-9
... Abstract Suspensions of human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium (hES-RPE) and human fetal RPE resurface aged and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) Bruch's membrane to a limited degree at day 21 in organ culture. Survival and differentiation of hES-RPE and human fetal...
Book Chapter
Series: Developments in Ophthalmology
Volume: 43
Published: 08 June 2009
10.1159/000223844
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9125-6
... Abstract The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of cells adjacent to the photoreceptors of the retina. It plays a crucial role in maintaining photoreceptor health and survival. Degeneration or dysfunction of the RPE can lead to photoreceptor degeneration and as a consequence...
Book Chapter
Series: Developments in Ophthalmology
Volume: 53
Published: 22 April 2014
10.1159/000357328
EISBN: 978-3-318-02585-9
... to the forefront of the field of regenerative medicine. Retinal progeny derived from either pluripotent stem cells or tissue-specific retinal and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) stem cells have the capacity both to replace damaged retina and to provide trophic support that slows disease progression. In contrast...
Book Chapter
Series: Developments in Ophthalmology
Volume: 53
Published: 22 April 2014
10.1159/000357361
EISBN: 978-3-318-02585-9
... explores the development of stem cell-based treatments for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a prevalent ocular disease in the elderly. Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), a cell type implicated in AMD, has been derived from both induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells (ESC). Rapidly...
Book Chapter
Series: ESASO Course Series
Volume: 10
Published: 23 May 2018
10.1159/000487413
EISBN: 978-3-318-06356-1
... retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. LF accumulation, originating from incomplete degradation of photoreceptor outer segment disks, represents a hallmark of RPE cell ageing. Excessive accumulation of LF granules in the lysosomal compartment of RPE cells signifies a downstream pathogenic pathway...
Book Chapter
Series: Developments in Ophthalmology
Volume: 42
Published: 17 June 2008
10.1159/000138988
EISBN: 978-3-8055-8552-1
... of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) limited their application. A systematicreview of the literature up to July 2007 was performed using Medline (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/) where we specifically searched for relevant information regarding the laboratory as well as clinicaluse of PB and BBG...
Book Chapter
Series: ESASO Course Series
Volume: 11
Published: 28 December 2020
10.1159/000485299
EISBN: 978-3-318-06643-2
... with age [1]. The non-exudative (dry) and the exudative or neovascular (wet) form (nAMD) are the two main types of AMD [2]. AMD always begins as the dry form of the disease, and dry AMD is a slow degenerative process resulting in the loss of macular photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE...
Book Chapter
Series: Developments in Ophthalmology
Volume: 53
Published: 22 April 2014
10.1159/000358536
EISBN: 978-3-318-02585-9
... including oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, complement deposition in the RPE-Bruch's membrane-choriocapillaris complex, lipidization of Bruch's membrane, and extracellular matrix abnormalities (e.g. collagen crosslinking, advanced glycation end product formation). Antiangiogenic...
Book Chapter
Series: Developments in Ophthalmology
Volume: 53
Published: 22 April 2014
10.1159/000357375
EISBN: 978-3-318-02585-9
... viability test. Since the submicron parylene-C itself is difficult to handle, we design a mesh-supported submicron parylene membrane (MSPM) to provide sufficient mechanical support. This MSPM can support the growth of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in a monolayer with well-polarized morphology...
Book Chapter
Series: ESASO Course Series
Volume: 11
Published: 28 December 2020
10.1159/000485295
EISBN: 978-3-318-06643-2
... Abstract Dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by changes in the outer retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and choroid. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has proven instrumental in analyzing these changes and further understanding the pathogenesis...
Book Chapter
Series: ESASO Course Series
Volume: 4
Published: 27 February 2014
10.1159/000355870
EISBN: 978-3-318-02564-4
... = ganglion cell layer; ELM = external limiting membrane; IPL = inner plexiform layer; IS = photoreceptor inner segment; INL = inner nuclear layer; OS = photoreceptor outer segment; RPE = retinal pigment epithelium; IS/OS = interface between IS and OS. The outer retinal layers of the normal eye show...
Book Chapter
Series: ESASO Course Series
Volume: 11
Published: 28 December 2020
10.1159/000485304
EISBN: 978-3-318-06643-2
... of intraretinal type 3 NV that was agnostic of vascular origin (retinal vs. choroidal) [4]. Yannuzzi et al. [3] proposed that RAP lesions originated from deep retinal vessels with progression towards the sub-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) space and anastomosis with the choroidal vasculature. In contrast, Gass...
Book Chapter
Series: ESASO Course Series
Volume: 4
Published: 27 February 2014
10.1159/000355893
EISBN: 978-3-318-02564-4
... image quality, with a high inter- and intraobserver reproducibility but without automatic measuring software. Choroidal thickness (CT) is defined as the distance between the outer borders of the RPE to the hyper-reflective line of the choroid/sclera boundary at predefined intervals of the inner surface...
Book Chapter
Series: ESASO Course Series
Volume: 1
Published: 24 May 2012
10.1159/000336763
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9991-7
... damage. Biochemical and histological studies of AMD eyes also indicate that oxidative damage plays a role in AMD pathogenesis. For example, Shen et al. [ 7 ] demonstrated DNA strand breaks and lipoperoxidation in eyes with geographic atrophy. RPE antioxidant enzyme changes in AMD eyes indicate...
Book Chapter
Series: ESASO Course Series
Volume: 11
Published: 28 December 2020
10.1159/000485296
EISBN: 978-3-318-06643-2
... pigment epithelium; RPE) [2]. The choriocapillaris plexus (CC) is the vascular layer restricted to the innermost part of the choroid, located between Bruch’s membrane and the medium-sized choroidal vessels. The CC is unique in that it is fenestrated mostly on the retinal side. The latter hallmark...
Book Chapter
Series: Developments in Ophthalmology
Volume: 55
Published: 27 October 2015
10.1159/000431128
EISBN: 978-3-318-05565-8
... limiting membrane (fig. 1 ). Light must traverse these many layers before initiating signal transduction in the rods and cones. Below the photoreceptors resides the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a monolayer of cuboidal cells containing many melanosomes from which the cells derive their pigmented color...
Book Chapter
Series: Developments in Ophthalmology
Volume: 47
Published: 18 August 2010
10.1159/000320077
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9435-6
... Abstract Macular edema is a major cause of morbidity in uveitis patients. Inflammatory mediators act on the integrity of the blood ocular barrier and on the function of the RPE pump. Chronicity leads to irreversible changes and is reported to cause up to 30% of permanent visual loss in uveitis...
Book Chapter
Series: Developments in Ophthalmology
Volume: 56
Published: 21 March 2016
10.1159/000442784
EISBN: 978-3-318-05830-7
... of the leading causes of vision loss in people over 60 years of age in the developed world. Dry AMD accounts for 85-90% of all cases of AMD [ 1 , 2 ]. In its early stages, it is characterized by the presence of drusen and pigmentary abnormalities resulting from alterations in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE...