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Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 86
Published: 28 June 2016
10.1159/000442738
EISBN: 978-3-318-05483-5
... extent. Postnatally, we have succeeded in improving the nitrogen balance in preterm infants, but the preconditions need also to be improved before concluding that today's policy is optimal. Only by gaining more knowledge on both fetal and neonatal physiology and disease will we be able to further...
Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 127
Published: 01 February 2024
10.1159/000534913
EISBN: 978-3-318-07341-6
Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 126
Published: 23 May 2023
10.1159/000527945
EISBN: 978-3-318-07246-4
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 96
Published: 30 June 2022
10.1159/000519384
EISBN: 978-3-318-07015-6
... Abstract Approaches to enteral feeding significantly preterm infants’ impact short-term outcomes including survival, late-onset sepsis (LOS), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and neurodevelopmental and later health outcomes. Clinical practice and trial data are dominated by short-term...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 96
Published: 30 June 2022
10.1159/000519391
EISBN: 978-3-318-07015-6
... Abstract Recommendations for nutrition of very preterm and very low birth weight infants have developed over time with our understanding of the requirements of preterm babies and the awareness of widespread poor postnatal growth. In general, the trend has been towards enhancing nutrition...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 96
Published: 30 June 2022
10.1159/000519389
EISBN: 978-3-318-07015-6
... Abstract The last 20 years have seen dramatic improvements in survival for preterm infants in both high- and low-income settings. Survival rates of over 50% in infants born 16 weeks early (24 weeks’ gestation) are now commonplace in well-resourced neonatal intensive care units. However...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 96
Published: 30 June 2022
10.1159/000519399
EISBN: 978-3-318-07015-6
... Abstract In preterm infants, the key goals of nutrition are to establish adequate growth and to contribute to appropriate neurodevelopmental outcome. In this context, the postdischarge period is crucial to establish catch-up growth and avoid wrong metabolic programming caused by overfeeding...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 96
Published: 30 June 2022
10.1159/000519397
EISBN: 978-3-318-07015-6
... Abstract Mother’s own milk is universally recognized as the optimal source of nutrition for preterm infants, although most authorities agree a multi-nutrient fortifier must be added in order to support nutrient accretion at a rate comparable to in utero. Nevertheless, many preterm infants face...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 96
Published: 30 June 2022
10.1159/000519394
EISBN: 978-3-318-07015-6
... Abstract For preterm and small-for-gestational age infants on enteral nutrition, the best solution is to add human milk fortifier (HMF) to human milk (HM) which is provided by the mother or a milk bank. HMF provides a means to add additional protein, energy, and micronutrients, while...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 96
Published: 30 June 2022
10.1159/000519392
EISBN: 978-3-318-07015-6
... Abstract Infants born very preterm miss out on the in utero transfer of the omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that occurs during the third trimester. A number of studies have explored the impact of increasing the enteral intakes of omega-3 +/– omega-6 long-chain...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 96
Published: 30 June 2022
10.1159/000519393
EISBN: 978-3-318-07015-6
... Abstract Deficiency or excess of specific micronutrients is common in preterm infants and can have many effects on health outcomes, ranging from life-threatening electrolyte disturbances to long-term effects on growth, brain development, bone health, and the risk of retinopathy of prematurity...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 96
Published: 30 June 2022
10.1159/000519404
EISBN: 978-3-318-07015-6
... are widely used in the United States. They have the advantage to be completely sterile, and another benefit is easier mixing. The main downside of liquid fortifiers is their volume replacement of HM (about 16.7%). The recommendations on the amounts of enteral protein needed by preterm infants (3.5–4.5 g/kg...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 96
Published: 30 June 2022
10.1159/000519396
EISBN: 978-3-318-07015-6
..., Bifidobacterium spp. are the primary bacterium used in probiotic supplements, owing to their association with positive outcomes in cohort studies and range of beneficial properties in mechanistic experiments. Preterm infants born <32 weeks’ gestation encounter an unnatural beginning to life, with housing...
Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 124
Published: 15 June 2022
10.1159/000517191
EISBN: 978-3-318-06296-0
... Growth Early nutrition Human milk Standardized feeding protocol Key Messages Most preterm infants are appropriate for gestational age at birth but experience postnatal growth faltering. A combined approach of early enteral and parenteral nutrition is necessary to optimize...
Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 124
Published: 15 June 2022
10.1159/000517556
EISBN: 978-3-318-06296-0
... Human milk fortifier Growth faltering Post-discharge formula Complementary feeding Protein energy ratio Key Messages Very preterm infants discharged from hospital with a bodyweight of around 1,800–2,000 g have markedly higher nutrient needs than infants born at term...
Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 125
Published: 27 April 2022
10.1159/000521800
EISBN: 978-3-318-07043-9
Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 123
Published: 14 September 2021
10.1159/000516454
EISBN: 978-3-318-06929-7
Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 122
Published: 03 September 2021
10.1159/000514773
EISBN: 978-3-318-06647-0
... Improvements in perinatal and neonatal care have markedly increased the survival of premature infants during the last two decades, in particular of infants born very preterm or extremely preterm. Accordingly, the attention of both families and medical caregivers has increasingly shifted from...
Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 122
Published: 03 September 2021
10.1159/000514739
EISBN: 978-3-318-06647-0
...Key Messages Meeting physiological nutrient requirements should maintain normal health and development. In preterm infants, a lack of conclusive data results in considerable uncertainty on the acceptable range of nutrient intakes. Introduction Meeting the nutritional needs...
Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 122
Published: 03 September 2021
10.1159/000514740
EISBN: 978-3-318-06647-0
...Key Messages Adequate provision of fats and protein are necessary for optimized brain development and specifically myelination among preterm infants. Delivering balanced macronutrients to ensure optimal linear growth and fat-free mass accretion is associated with improved long-term...