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osmolyte

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Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 123
Published: 14 September 1998
10.1159/000059927
EISBN: 978-3-318-00337-6
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Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 69
Published: 31 January 2012
10.1159/000329290
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9698-5
...), by cellular accumulation of organic osmolytes (e.g. myoinositol, betaine, phosphorylcholine, taurine) as well as by proteolysis leading to generation of amino acids and glycogenolysis generating glucose phosphate. Following cell swelling, cell volume is restored by ion exit (activation of K + channels...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493243
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... are rather constant (∼18%) over a wide range of plasma sodium concentrations (72-116 mEq/L), suggesting that the brain can lose no more than 18% of its ion content [ 5 , 6 , 7 ]. Once electrolyte losses are exhausted, loss of intracellular organic osmolytes are required to restore brain volume, despite...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 69
Published: 31 January 2012
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9698-5
... proliferation and cell death. Methods Enzymol 2007;428:209-225 6. Pasantes-Morales H, Cruz-Rangel S: Brain volume regulation: osmolytes and aquaporin perspectives. Neuroscience 2010;168:871-884 7. Usher-Smith JA, Huang CL, Fraser JA: Control of cell volume in skeletal muscle. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
...:24-35. 7. Sterns RH, Silver SM: Brain volume regulation in response to hypo-osmolality and its correction. Am J Med 2006;119(7 suppl 1):S12-S16. 8. Verbalis JG, Gullans SR: Hyponatremia causes large sustained reductions in brain content of multiple organic osmolytes in rats. Brain Res...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 152
Published: 09 October 2006
10.1159/000096319
EISBN: 978-3-318-01393-1
... osmolytes counteracts the tendency of cells to swell. Conversely when cells areexposed to perturbations that cause shrinkage, ions are rapidly imported. Chronic hypertonicstimulation increases the transcription of multiple genes whose products promote the intracellularaccumulation of organic osmolytes. How...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 148
Published: 16 June 2005
10.1159/000086041
EISBN: 978-3-318-01170-8
... Abstract In antidiuresis renal medullary cells are exposed to high NaCl and urea concentrations.Long-term adaptation of renal medullary cells to high extracellular NaCl concentrations isaccomplished by intracellular accumulation of organic osmolytes. The underlying mechanismsinclude enhanced...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 152
Published: 09 October 2006
10.1159/000096326
EISBN: 978-3-318-01393-1
... (swelling-induced extracellular space shrinkage and ephaptic interactions)might be responsible for the hyposmolarity effects on brain excitability. Neuronal volumeconstancy in hyponatremia is preserved by the isovolumetric regulation, relying importantlyon organic osmolytes. Changes in cell volume...
Book
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 123
Published: 14 September 1998
10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-00337-6
EISBN: 978-3-318-00337-6
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
...:R444-R451. 21. Verbalis JG, Gullans SR: Hyponatremia causes large, sustained reductions in brain content of multiple organic osmolytes in rats. Brain Res 1991;20:274-282. 22. Verbalis JG, Gullans SR: Rapid correction of hyponatremia produces differential effects on brain osmolytes...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 152
Published: 09 October 2006
10.1159/000096320
EISBN: 978-3-318-01393-1
..., and cytoskeletal alterations. Despite these perturbations the cells are able tosurvive and function because of osmoprotective responses that include accumulation of compatibleorganic osmolytes and increased abundance of heat shock proteins and water channels.Many of the responses are initiated by increased gene...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 152
Published: 09 October 2006
10.1159/000096284
EISBN: 978-3-318-01393-1
... is extruded by the Na + /K + ATPase in exchange for K + .Shrunken cells further accumulate organic osmolytes. They generate sorbitol and glycerophosphorylcholineand monomeric amino acids by altered metabolism and take up myoinositol(inositol), betaine, taurine and amino acids by Na + coupled transport...
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Volume: 52
Published: 05 February 2019
10.1159/000493216
EISBN: 978-3-318-06383-7
... osmoregulation during sustained hyponatremia [ 20 ]. Having established credentials as a valid animal model for human SIAD, a series of studies was then able to establish the patterns of osmolyte fluxes across the brain and the abnormalities that were present during hyponatremia [ 21 ]; the data from...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 163
Published: 15 June 2009
10.1159/000223783
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9203-1
... a morphological point of view, by accumulating compatible osmolytes like betaine, launching the mechanism of regulatory volume increase. Addition of betaine to PD formulation is proposed in order to attenuate cells shrinkage and facilitate adjustment to a new, non physiological environment. Modulation...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 152
Published: 09 October 2006
10.1159/000096318
EISBN: 978-3-318-01393-1
... Abstract The ability to control cell volume is fundamental for proper cell function. This reviewhighlights recent advances in the understanding of the complex sequences of events by whichacute cell volume perturbation alters the activity of osmolyte transport proteins in cells fromvertebrate...
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 152
Published: 09 October 2006
10.1159/000096321
EISBN: 978-3-318-01393-1
... to transient decrease of cell volume. Apoptosis is typically paralleled by sustainedactivation of Cl - channels leading to Cl - , HCO- 3 and osmolyte exit. The subsequent cellshrinkage and cytosolic acidification are not counter-regulated by activation of the Na + /H + exchanger, which is inhibited...
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Series: Contributions to Nephrology
Volume: 152
Published: 09 October 2006
10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-01393-1
EISBN: 978-3-318-01393-1