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Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume: 80
Published: 24 July 2017
10.1159/000470522
EISBN: 978-3-318-06065-2
... Abstract The primary pathological event in the disorder obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the partial or complete closure of the pharyngeal airway during sleep in an individual with a widely patent airway during wakefulness. This yields an apnea or hypopnea with resulting hypoxia and hypercapnia...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume: 80
Published: 24 July 2017
10.1159/000470816
EISBN: 978-3-318-06065-2
... Abstract Drug-induced sleep endoscopy was introduced in 1991 and has recently evolved into a pivotal instrument for patients in whom obstructive sleep apnea surgery is considered. Here, we discuss the indications, contraindications, technique, anesthesia, scoring systems, validity, and insights...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume: 80
Published: 24 July 2017
10.1159/000470819
EISBN: 978-3-318-06065-2
... Abstract If untreated, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) develops as a gradual progressive disease. In the early stage of the disease most patients with OSA are positional. The archetypical patient might progress from simple positional snoring via positional early-stage mild disease to less...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume: 80
Published: 24 July 2017
10.1159/000470821
EISBN: 978-3-318-06065-2
... Abstract Obstructive sleep apnea is a highly prevalent and poorly understood condition that not only leads to significant individual patient health damage, but carries a large societal cost secondary to excessive healthcare utilization, motor-vehicle accidents, and work absenteeism. While...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume: 80
Published: 24 July 2017
10.1159/000470859
EISBN: 978-3-318-06065-2
..., and the effects of oral positioning on the hypopharynx should be used in early assessment for treatment planning, and as screening tools to assess the sight of obstruction. Although these screening tools are not substitutes for drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), they are crucial in early assessment as many...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume: 80
Published: 24 July 2017
10.1159/000470895
EISBN: 978-3-318-06065-2
... Abstract Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), the gold standard for the treatment of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, was introduced by Sullivan in 1981. CPAP acts as an air splinter to support the collapsing upper airway during sleep. The mask, the interface between...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume: 80
Published: 24 July 2017
10.1159/000470865
EISBN: 978-3-318-06065-2
... Abstract Oral appliances that advance the mandible are widely used as alternatives to positive airway pressure (PAP) devices or as primary therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults. Although PAP is more efficacious at lowering the polysomnographic indices of OSA, the clinical...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume: 80
Published: 24 July 2017
10.1159/000470868
EISBN: 978-3-318-06065-2
... Abstract Numerous studies report that difficulty breathing through the nose is associated with reduced sleep quality, increased daytime dysfunction, and increased risk of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Additionally, chronic nasal obstruction often complicates and limits successful...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume: 80
Published: 24 July 2017
10.1159/000470869
EISBN: 978-3-318-06065-2
... Abstract Initially described in 1981, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty was the first surgical procedure specially designed at the palatal level for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). To date, palatal surgery remains the most commonly used surgery for OSA. The advancement of this surgery over...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume: 80
Published: 24 July 2017
10.1159/000470873
EISBN: 978-3-318-06065-2
... Abstract Box surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients consists of mandibular surgery, including genioglossus advancement, hyoid suspension, and maxillomandibular advancement, as an airway reconstruction. This surgery was developed in the early 1980s. Thereafter, techniques were...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume: 80
Published: 24 July 2017
10.1159/000470879
EISBN: 978-3-318-06065-2
... Abstract Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the primary treatment of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSA). Most sleep physicians are in agreement that a certain number of OSA patients cannot or will not use CPAP. Although other conservative therapies, such as oral...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume: 80
Published: 24 July 2017
10.1159/000470880
EISBN: 978-3-318-06065-2
... Abstract Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as a multifactorial disease is treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as the gold standard. Yet, if patients suffer from CPAP incompliance, traditional OSA surgery only targets morphological changes of the upper airway while neglecting...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume: 80
Published: 24 July 2017
10.1159/000470882
EISBN: 978-3-318-06065-2
... Abstract Since the first report of the use of the da Vinci robotic system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) in transoral robotic tongue base reduction for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was published in 2010, this surgical tool and technique has been used worldwide for the resection...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume: 80
Published: 24 July 2017
10.1159/000470885
EISBN: 978-3-318-06065-2
... Abstract Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was initially described in 1976. In 1981, Dr. Guilleminault emphasized that pediatric OSA was different from the clinical presentation reported in adults. It was characterized by more disturbed nocturnal sleep than excessive daytime sleepiness...
Book
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume: 77
Published: 29 April 2016
10.1159/000441886
EISBN: 978-3-318-05651-8
... Abstract Sleep is important for children pertaining to their physical and mental growth. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children has been shown to have different effects as compared to OSAS in adults, including deficits in cognition and neuropsychological functions, hyperactivity...
Book Chapter
Series: Progress in Neurological Surgery
Volume: 29
Published: 09 September 2015
10.1159/000434660
EISBN: 978-3-318-02809-6
... Abstract Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a very frequent affliction that affects about 1-5% of the adult population in its severe form. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most commonly used treatment and is highly effective, but its use is limited by low long-term adherence...
Book Chapter
Series: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume: 76
Published: 11 February 2015
10.1159/000368033
EISBN: 978-3-318-02787-7
... Abstract This chapter outlines the surgical management of children who experience symptoms of airway obstruction after undergoing pharyngeal flap surgery or sphincter pharyngoplasty for the correction of velopharyngeal insufficiency. It also describes the management of children...
Book Chapter
Series: Chemical Immunology and Allergy
Volume: 99
Published: 21 October 2013
10.1159/000353307
EISBN: 978-3-318-02481-4
... Abstract In chronic inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), changes in bronchial microvasculature are present and contribute to airway wall remodeling. Angiogenesis and vascular leak seem to be prevalent in asthma, while vasodilatation...