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microbiota

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Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 97
Published: 12 May 2023
10.1159/000528988
EISBN: 978-3-318-07170-2
... Abstract The development of the microbiome within the human digestive tract starts at birth and continues up to approximately 3 years of age when the microbial ecosystem resembles a more adulthood-like state. The pace of colonization and diversification of the gut microbiota in the early stages...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 96
Published: 30 June 2022
10.1159/000519390
EISBN: 978-3-318-07015-6
... Abstract Gut microbiota plays an important role in infants’ health. The prevalence of bifidobacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of term breastfed infants has been associated with reduced infection rates compared with formula-fed infants. However, few studies evaluated microbiota in premature...
Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 124
Published: 15 June 2022
10.1159/000516714
EISBN: 978-3-318-06296-0
... Infant microbiota Colonization Mode of birth Key Messages Early gut microbiota colonization is crucial for infant development and health programming. Maternal microbiota is the most relevant microbial source for infant microbiota. There are perinatal factors including mode...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 32
Published: 28 May 2021
10.1159/000510415
EISBN: 978-3-318-06856-6
... are programmed, this chapter will focus on the impacts of maternal history of childhood adversity on offspring mental health, including the role of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. One of the most commonly used frameworks of the last several decades for measuring childhood adversity is the Adverse Childhood...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 32
Published: 28 May 2021
10.1159/000510416
EISBN: 978-3-318-06856-6
... integrity. Gut microbes interact with the host in a bi-directional manner as the microbiota can support the development and education of the innate and adaptive immune systems, thereby conferring protection against pathogens and harmful stimuli while training the host to maintain a homeostatic tolerance...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 32
Published: 28 May 2021
10.1159/000510417
EISBN: 978-3-318-06856-6
... Abstract There is currently enormous interest in the impact of the intestinal microbiota on the development and function of the brain via activity of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. It has long been recognised that symbiotic microorganisms influence host behaviour, but in recent years evidence...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 32
Published: 28 May 2021
10.1159/000510418
EISBN: 978-3-318-06856-6
.... Foundational work on germ-free mice provided the catalyst for neuroscientists to consider the microbiota-brain axis and brain health. Research manipulating the microbiome, including use of germ-free mice, antibiotics, and probiotics, provide evidence that the microbiota influences stress systems...
Book Chapter
Series: Monographs in Oral Science
Volume: 29
Published: 12 January 2021
10.1159/000510186
EISBN: 978-3-318-06852-8
... Abstract The present narrative review provides a summary of the temporal and spatial reactions of the oral microbiome to the placement of a dental implant into the oral cavity, depicting the most important interactions between the oral microbiota and the host response involved...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 94
Published: 09 June 2020
10.1159/000505031
EISBN: 978-3-318-06685-2
... Abstract At the beginning of the 21st century, some pioneer studies provided evidence of the existence of a site-specific human milk microbiota. Hygienically collected milk samples from healthy women contain a relatively low bacterial load, which consist mostly of Staphylococcus...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 94
Published: 09 June 2020
10.1159/000504996
EISBN: 978-3-318-06685-2
... roles in terms of interaction with the host, how this interaction may play a role in host health, and the state of the science as well as the gaps that remain for future investigation. Human Milk Microbiota The first area to be discussed is the microbiota found in human milk [ 11 , 12...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 94
Published: 09 June 2020
10.1159/000505337
EISBN: 978-3-318-06685-2
... of the suggested mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of the tryptophan catabolite indole-3-lactic acid (ILA) in B. infantis secretions on an intestinal epithelial cell. (1) Degradation of lumen protein leads to the release of tryptophan (Trp). Under the influence of the gut microbiota, Trp is converted...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 94
Published: 09 June 2020
10.1159/000505552
EISBN: 978-3-318-06685-2
... The second session was devoted entirely to microbiota in breast milk. Further evidence was presented to support breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life by considering new aspects of the composition of breast milk which supports a healthy initial colonization in the newborn. Samuli...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 94
Published: 09 June 2020
10.1159/000505335
EISBN: 978-3-318-06685-2
... Abstract Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is intimately involved in the transfer of maternal immunity to the newborn breastfed infant. Recent research demonstrates the significance of SIgA in the initial development of the newborn’s microbiota and in the establishment of a tolerogenic...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 88
Published: 30 May 2017
10.1159/000455214
EISBN: 978-3-318-06031-7
... their extensive studies of the maternal intestinal microbiome during pregnancy. Because gut microbiota is influenced by alterations in weight, hormonal stimulation, and immunologic defenses, phenomena that occur throughout pregnancy, the maternal microbiota changes drastically from the first to the third...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 88
Published: 30 May 2017
10.1159/000455216
EISBN: 978-3-318-06031-7
... Abstract Antibiotics are often prescribed inappropriately to infants and young children, with potentially adverse effects on the developing gut microbiota and related metabolic processes. We review evidence from 17 epidemiologic studies suggesting that antibiotic exposure during critical...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 88
Published: 30 May 2017
10.1159/000455989
EISBN: 978-3-318-06031-7
... intrigued researchers for many years. Availability of newer molecular methods (e.g., 16S ribosomal RNA gene-specific primers/pyrosequencing of fecal DNA) is expected to improve our understanding of the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of NEC. Recent studies employing such methods to assess fecal...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 88
Published: 30 May 2017
10.1159/000455217
EISBN: 978-3-318-06031-7
... provide one new target for interventions aiming to close this vicious circle: the microbiota. An aberrant gut microbiota, dysbiosis, induces immune and metabolic disturbances both locally and, consequent upon impaired gut barrier function, also systemic low-grade inflammation, which is causally linked...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 88
Published: 30 May 2017
10.1159/000455219
EISBN: 978-3-318-06031-7
... that the Gut Microbiome Is Altered in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders Studies indicate that intestinal microbial dysbiosis is a feature in both children [ 2 ] and adults [ 3 ] with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As with many studies related to the gut microbiota in other human conditions...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 88
Published: 30 May 2017
10.1159/000455220
EISBN: 978-3-318-06031-7
... Abstract Gut microbiota plays an important role in host health maintenance and disease pathogenesis. The development of a stable and diverse gut microbiota is essential to various host physiologic functions such as immunoregulation, pathogen prevention, energy harvest, and metabolism...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 88
Published: 30 May 2017
10.1159/000455221
EISBN: 978-3-318-06031-7
... Session II set the stage for understanding the clinical correlates and consequences of dysbiosis. Dysbiosis indicates a shift in gut microbiota composition, i.e., an imbalance in the taxonomic composition appropriate for the age and the environment of the host. Critical evaluation was made...