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microbiome

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Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 99
Published: 18 April 2024
10.1159/000534948
EISBN: 978-3-318-07336-2
... to various environmental factors. Among them, dietary factors and exposure to microbes have been found to be pivotal. Dietary fiber intake and exposure to microbes in the environment will affect the intestinal microbiome which in turn produces metabolites interacting with different components of our immune...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 99
Published: 18 April 2024
10.1159/000534951
EISBN: 978-3-318-07336-2
.... Such combined effects can be measured with polygenic risk scores. The microbiome, genetic material present in microorganisms (microbiota) colonizing the gut, confers traits relevant for nutrition but also adapts during the life course and may be a modifiable factor in digestive function. Microbiome features...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 99
Published: 18 April 2024
10.1159/000534950
EISBN: 978-3-318-07336-2
... of the gastrointestinal tract. This review presents recent literature on the role of the gut microbial community and its interaction with diet in the etiology, progression, and outcomes of gastrointestinal diseases in children. We allude that even though the gut microbiome is commonly altered in pediatric conditions like...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 99
Published: 18 April 2024
10.1159/000534959
EISBN: 978-3-318-07336-2
... of the infant. It has been estimated that less than 5% of all ingested HMOs are digested in the small intestine [ 9 ], and only a fraction is absorbed from the gut into systemic circulation [ 10 ]. In the gastrointestinal tract, the HMOs can interact directly and indirectly (through our gut microbiome) with our...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 96
Published: 30 June 2022
10.1159/000519396
EISBN: 978-3-318-07015-6
... is the most important factor shaping the gut microbiome, in particular receipt of human milk. Human milk contains viable bacteria and numerous components that modulate the bacterial community, including human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) which promote the growth of Bifidobacterium species. Notably...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 96
Published: 30 June 2022
10.1159/000519405
EISBN: 978-3-318-07015-6
...-microbe interactions and the gut microbiome for immediate and long-term health with a particular focus on very low birth infants, NEC, and sepsis. The chapter also introduces novel in vitro and ex vivo organoid systems that allow researchers to take a closer look at host-microbe interactions...
Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 122
Published: 03 September 2021
10.1159/000514737
EISBN: 978-3-318-06647-0
...Key Messages Recent research suggests that the fetal/neonatal microbiome may be established in utero. Dysbiosis, or altered intestinal microbiota, has been implicated in multiple neonatal and childhood diseases including necrotizing enterocolitis, allergies, autism, and type 1 diabetes...
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 32
Published: 28 May 2021
10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-06856-6
EISBN: 978-3-318-06856-6
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 32
Published: 28 May 2021
10.1159/000510414
EISBN: 978-3-318-06856-6
... that the microbiome, especially that within the gastrointestinal tract, is most dynamic and perhaps has its greatest influence on host health. Here, we focus on the role of the gut microbiome as a regulator of brain and behaviour through key points in the human lifespan. We first describe trajectories...
Book Chapter
Series: Modern Trends in Psychiatry
Volume: 32
Published: 28 May 2021
10.1159/000510423
EISBN: 978-3-318-06856-6
... Abstract The human gut microbiome plays a key role in host physiology in health and disease. There is a growing emphasis on the bidirectional interaction between various medications and the gut microbiome. Here, we will first review how drugs can affect microbiome composition and how...
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 94
Published: 09 June 2020
10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-06685-2
EISBN: 978-3-318-06685-2
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 94
Published: 09 June 2020
10.1159/000505030
EISBN: 978-3-318-06685-2
... Abstract Breastfeeding confers the infant short- and long-term health benefits and significantly modulates the developing infant gut microbiome. A specific human milk microbiome has relatively recently been discovered, but its origin remains poorly understood. Data from experimental...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 94
Published: 09 June 2020
10.1159/000504997
EISBN: 978-3-318-06685-2
..., and other viral particles. Human milk viruses are instrumental in shaping the infant gut virome and microbiome. Eukaryotic DNA and RNA viruses contribute to pathogenic challenges and protection. Bacteriophages have the ability to kill bacteria or supply them with potentially beneficial gene functions...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 94
Published: 09 June 2020
10.1159/000505066
EISBN: 978-3-318-06685-2
... on the microbiome and lipidome. MFGM supplementation had moderate, albeit interesting, effects on the oral and fecal microbiome, fecal and serum/plasma metabolome, and serum and erythrocyte membrane lipidome, which also are reviewed. We conclude that studies on MFGM supplementation during infancy and childhood...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 94
Published: 09 June 2020
10.1159/000505334
EISBN: 978-3-318-06685-2
...- and micronutrient needs, combined with an appreciation of functional components (for example, lactoferrin or oligosaccharides). Improving nutritional status also requires a healthy microbiome. In part, the gut microbiota is “acquired” from microbes present in the mammary gland (and therefore in breast milk...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 93
Published: 26 February 2020
10.1159/000503352
EISBN: 978-3-318-06649-4
..., an emerging body of evidence suggests that commensal microbial communities, known as the microbiome, also play an important role. The gut microbiome regulates energy harvesting from nutrients, growth hormone signaling, colonization resistance, and immune tolerance against pathogens, amongst other pathways...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 90
Published: 13 March 2019
10.1159/000490302
EISBN: 978-3-318-06341-7
... the healthy microbiome and modifying its deviations at an early age. The rationale arises from the recognition of the intimate interrelationship between diet, immune system, and microbiome and the origins of human diseases. Before satisfactory preventive measures can be put in practice, important questions...
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 88
Published: 30 May 2017
10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-06031-7
EISBN: 978-3-318-06031-7
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 88
Published: 30 May 2017
10.1159/000455207
EISBN: 978-3-318-06031-7
... Abstract In recent years, microbiome research has revealed multiple essential roles of the microorganisms residing within the human body in host metabolism, immunity, and overall health. Numerous physiological and pathological states, including obesity and the metabolic syndrome, have been...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 84
Published: 18 January 2016
10.1159/000436993
EISBN: 978-3-318-05599-3
... environment, and diet. There are epidemiologic data associating diet with the development of inflammatory bowel disease as well as evidence that diet can influence both the form and the function of the microbiome. Based on this evidence, studies are now underway to examine the effect of defined formula diets...