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microbial

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Book Chapter
Series: Monographs in Oral Science
Volume: 31
Published: 19 July 2023
10.1159/000530558
EISBN: 978-3-318-07166-5
... Abstract Bacteria, fungi, archaea, protozoa, viruses, and bacteriophages colonize the oral cavity and, in combination, they form the oral microbiome . The coexistence of different microorganisms and the microbial balance at each specific site are warranted by synergistic and antagonist...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 54
Published: 21 August 2018
10.1159/000489522
EISBN: 978-3-318-06385-1
.../incontinence dermatitis and wound healing are examples of cases where microbial infection is promoted by the altered skin conditions or environment. Fungi have a complex system that senses ambient pH that leads to metabolic responses allowing adhesion, growth and invasion, as microbial metabolites further...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 88
Published: 30 May 2017
10.1159/000455209
EISBN: 978-3-318-06031-7
... all other species on our planet, have evolved to live and thrive in an environment densely inhabited by microbes. During the past decades, it has become apparent that rather than mere cohabitance, our existence in the microbial world takes the form of mutually beneficial symbiosis. Indeed, except...
Book Chapter
Series: Current Problems in Dermatology
Volume: 48
Published: 24 March 2015
10.1159/000369226
EISBN: 978-3-318-02777-8
... that the current ink sterilisation systems show a low capability to inactivate microbial contamination in tattoo inks. At the moment, European Resolution ResAP2008-1 recommends that the ink be sterile and supplied in containers that maintain the sterility of the product until application. In light of the outcomes...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 79
Published: 10 September 2014
10.1159/000360685
EISBN: 978-3-318-02670-2
... + gut-tropic T REG . In contrast, microbiota-specific T REG in the colon do not appear to require RA, but can be regulated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), microbial metabolites that signal through the G protein-coupled receptor GPR43. Moreover, T REG do not need CCR9 to home to the colon...
Book Chapter
Series: Else Kröner-Fresenius Symposia
Volume: 4
Published: 05 June 2013
10.1159/000346532
EISBN: 978-3-318-02348-0
..., endocrinology and neurophysiology, is the emerging translational medicine discipline known as microbial endocrinology. Given that immune cell function can be modulated by host neuroendocrine hormones, one of the areas in which microbial endocrinology has been proposed to have particular application...
Book Chapter
Series: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume: 107
Published: 29 April 2013
10.1159/000345733
EISBN: 978-3-318-02325-1
... intimately cooperating with adaptive mucosal immunity which largely relies on secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and SIgM antibodies. The former antibody class provides the most extensive anti-inflammatory defense of the body by performing immune exclusion - a term coined for mucosal control of microbial...
Book Chapter
Book Chapter
Series: Frontiers of Oral Biology
Volume: 15
Published: 02 November 2011
10.1159/000329669
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9834-7
... the gingival crevices. Although these investigations are constructing a pretty detailed taxonomical census of subgingival microbial communities, including inter-subject and temporal variability in community structure, as well as differences according to periodontal health status, we are still at the front...
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: Genome Dynamics
Volume: 6
Published: 27 August 2009
10.1159/isbn.978-3-8055-9193-5
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9193-5
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 64
Published: 25 August 2009
10.1159/000235779
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9168-3
... gastrointestinal tract is a reservoir for 100 trillion microorganisms. This astounding microbial population encompasses somewhere between 500 and 1,000 different bacterial species. Amazingly, prokaryotic bacterial cells outnumber eukaryotic host cells by 100 to 1 in mammalian species [ 1 ]. The complexity...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 64
Published: 25 August 2009
10.1159/000235787
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9168-3
... activate pathogenic bacterial antigen-specific effector T cells that cause chronic inflammation in genetically susceptible hosts but induce protective immune responses in normal subjects. Both host and microbial specificities are important. Some bacterial species are aggressive, some are neutral and others...
Book Chapter
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 64
Published: 25 August 2009
10.1159/000235792
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9168-3
... tract and therefore, by selecting new candidate probiotics from members of the normal microbiota, the strains are likely to have the prerequisite survival and specificity. Probiotic bacteria should also counteract the inflammatory process by stabilizing the gut microbial environment and the intestine's...
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Volume: 64
Published: 25 August 2009
10.1159/isbn.978-3-8055-9168-3
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9168-3
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Microbiology
Volume: 16
Published: 26 May 2009
10.1159/000219369
EISBN: 978-3-8055-9133-1
... to environmental changes. This is a result of interactions between microbes and the environment and amongst members of the community. A multitude of chemical interactions occur in microbial communities where primary and secondary metabolites contribute to a wealth of interactions between organisms. The chemicals...
Book Chapter
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Microbiology
Volume: 15
Published: 17 June 2008
10.1159/000135685
EISBN: 978-3-8055-8549-1
... Abstract Antigen-presenting cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, represent a central and important partof the immune defence against invading microorganisms, as they participate in initial capture and processingof microbial antigens (innate immunity) and then activation of specific T...
Book Chapter
Book Chapter
Series: Contributions to Microbiology
Volume: 12
Published: 30 September 2004
10.1159/000081692
EISBN: 978-3-318-01116-6
Book Chapter